トランプ大統領になると??  Trump 161127(Sun)

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ドナルド・トランプ
Donald Trump
Donald Trump by Gage Skidmore 10.jpg
アリゾナ州フェニックスにて 2016年8月31日撮影

任期 2017年1月20日(就任予定) –
副大統領 マイク・ペンス

出生 1946年6月14日(70歳)
アメリカ合衆国の旗 アメリカ合衆国
ニューヨーク州の旗 ニューヨーク州 ニューヨーク市の旗 ニューヨーク市 クイーンズ区の旗 クイーンズ区
政党 共和党 (2012年 – 現在、2009年 – 2011年、1987年 – 1999年)[1]
過去の所属:
民主党 (2001年 – 2009年[1]、1987年以前[2])
アメリカ合衆国改革党(1999年 – 2001年)[1]
配偶者 イヴァナ1977年1992年
マーラ英語版1993年1999年
メラニア2005年 – 現在)
子女 ドナルド・トランプ・ジュニア
イヴァンカ・トランプ
エリック・トランプ
ティファニー
バロン英語版
署名 Donald Trump Signature.svg
ドナルド・トランプ

Donald Trump

住居 ニューヨーク市マンハッタントランプ・タワー
フロリダ州パームビーチ、マー・アー・ラゴ
国籍 アメリカ合衆国の旗 アメリカ合衆国
出身校 ペンシルベニア大学
職業
活動期間 1968年
給料 増加2億5,000万ドル
純資産 増加45億ドル(『フォーブス2015年10月)[3]
身長 191 cm (6 ft 3 in)
宗教 長老派教会
フレッド・トランプ英語版(父)
フレデリック・トランプ(祖父)
親戚 マリアン・トランプ・バリー英語版(姉)、ジャレッド・クシュナー(娘婿)
公式サイト 公式サイト
ドナルド・トランプ(@realDonaldTrump) – Twitter

ドナルド・ジョン・トランプDonald John Trump1946年6月14日 – )は、アメリカ合衆国実業家。第45代アメリカ合衆国大統領(予定)。不動産会社トランプ・オーガナイゼーションの会長兼社長で、カジノ・ホテル運営会社トランプ・エンターテイメント・リゾーツの設立者である[4]

アメリカで なぜ? トランプが大統領選を制したのか?? 「あえば直道」さんの「トランプ革命」を

読むと 疑問が解けてくる。 背景には 幾つもの大きな流れ、伏流の存在があったのが、明確に判明する。

あえばさんは 今年の3月の時点で、トランプ大統領の登場を見通していた。 なぜ メディアは

偏向して 意図的に報道しなかったのかも 判ってくる。

 

★忘れてはならないことは 日本も同じだ。 メディアの偏向が確かにある。 NHKを はじめ

テレビ局や 朝日をはじめとする新聞社。 しっかり 検証する必要があると 痛感する。

今回 アメリカで 既存政治勢力の期待に反して トランプが 制した。 この流れは 世界の

潮流の一つになるかも知れない。 色々検証しながら これまでの姿勢や 考え方を 行動を

見直す時期が 来たのだとも 思う。 良い機会だ 今の中国 韓国 北朝鮮、

東アジア、欧州 中東 南米 アメリカ その中での日本。 しっかり 見直そう。

★当然 アメリカが変われば 日本も変わらざるを得ない。 それも 大きく変わって行くだろう。

中国も 北朝鮮も シリア情勢も 欧米の情勢も 大きく変わって行く。

 

★日本人の本来の世界における役割を 忘れずに 対応して行かねばと思う。

[あえば直道]のトランプ革命

あえば直道さんは、1967年生まれ 共和党全米委員会・顧問(アジア担当) 一般社団法人 JCU議長。

政治評論家。なお2015年 全米保守連合 ACUの日本側パートナーとして JCUを設立。

著書に 「最強国家」 「クリントン・キャッシュ」 などがある。

 

Donald John Trump (/ˈdɒnəld ɒn trʌmp/; born June 14, 1946) is an American businessman and politician who is the President-elect of the United States. In June 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for president as a Republican and quickly emerged as the front-runner for his party’s nomination.

 

His final rivals suspended their campaigns in May 2016, and in July he was formally nominated at the party convention.

Trump won the general election on November 8, 2016 by earning more Electoral College votes than Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, who won the popular vote.

 

This makes Trump the fourth person to have won the electoral college but lose the popular vote. As of November 2016, Trump’s presidential transition is underway and he is scheduled to be inaugurated on January 20, 2017.

At 70 years old, he will be the oldest person to assume the presidency. Trump will also be the second president born in New York City after Theodore Roosevelt, and the only president born in Queens or any of the “outer boroughs” of New York City.

メディア報道

2016年大統領選における米国の新聞・雑誌の支持動向

候補 日刊紙 週刊紙 雑誌 学生新聞 国際報道機関 合計
支持なし 55 12 0 4 0 70
ドナルド・トランプ 8 4 0 0 0 12
ゲーリー・ジョンソン 6 0 0 0 0 6
エヴァン・マクマリン 1 0 0 0 0 1
ヒラリー・クリントン以外 1 0 0 0 0 1
ドナルド・トランプ以外 6 1 4 3 4 18
ヒラリー・クリントン 226 121 13 53 10 425

トランプは他の候補よりも少ない資金で指名争いをリードすることで、資金力だけでは勝てないことを印象づけた。

ルビオ、ヒラリー、ジェブ・ブッシュらがウォール街から大口の献金を得ていることと対照的に[59]、トランプは献金を募らずに自弁による選挙活動を続けており、同陣営が使った28億円(2500万ドル)という費用はあらゆる共和党候補よりも少ない。

16年2月時点で、共和党の各候補が1票を獲得するために投じた費用は、ジェブ・ブッシュが14万円(1320ドル)、ルビオが3万円(260ドル)、テッド・クルーズが2万6千円(233ドル)、トランプが6800円(60ドル)である[60]

有権者1人あたりに投じた金額は、ジェブ・ブッシュ6万円(551ドル)、ルビオ3400円(30ドル)に対して、トランプは340円(3ドル)である[61]

またトランプに対するネガティブ広告は週ごとに増し、2月末までに費やされたトランプ封じのネガティブキャンペーン予算は76億円(6700万ドル)に上る。各候補は対トランプ予算を3億円以上用意しており、フロリダの予備選投票ではトランプ阻止のために7億9千万円(700万ドル)が使われた。

16年3月上旬には共和党のテレビCMの半数はトランプ降ろしを狙うものになり、対トランプのネガティブCMは6万件に達し、「弾幕」や「嵐」と呼ばれるほど増えた。

また欧米メディアは、一様にトランプに否定的な反応を見せている[62]。米国の政治専門紙ザ・ヒルの調査によると2016年10月までに米国の発行部数上位100紙のうち民主党候補のクリントンを支持した新聞が17紙あったのに対し、トランプ支持を打ち出した新聞は1紙も存在しなかった[63]。女性蔑視発言によるトランプの失速が明らかになって以降、トランプ批判に踏み切りクリントン支持を打ち出すメディアは急増しており、歴代大統領に関する資料を収集するカリフォルニア大学サンタバーバラ校のプロジェクトが同じく上位100紙を対象に行った調査では、クリントン支持33紙、ジョンソン支持3紙、トランプ支持は0紙であった[64]。ジョンソン支持を打ち出した3紙は元来、共和党寄りの論調の新聞である。

エコノミストは、「トランプのアメリカ – なぜトランプ氏は危険なのか」という題の社説を掲載、トランプの政策の変遷や政党遍歴、ポピュリズムや外交政策を批判した[65]
ニューズウィークは、トランプについてアドルフ・ヒトラーと同じデマゴーグであり、自画自賛が激しく、傲慢で具体性もないのに詭弁を弄して民衆の支持を集める人物であるとする記事を掲載した[66][出典無効]
ハフィントン・ポストは、2015年にはトランプの選挙運動を「見せ物」(sideshow)に過ぎないとして、政治欄で扱わずエンタメ欄[67]に掲載していたが、12月7日、アリアナ・ハフィントン(ハフィントンポスト創設者で社長、編集長)がトランプを「トランプの発言は初めから醜かった(ugly)」「トランプは女性蔑視主義者だ」「トランプは人種差別主義者」「トランプの好きにはさせない」「彼の発言は面白くない。不快で危険だ。」と非難し、再び政治面で扱う決定をしたと発表した[68][69]
共和党系保守紙ナショナル・レビュー英語版は、ドナルド・トランプとテッド・クルーズの2人を共和党への脅威として辛辣に批判し続けており、2016年には「反トランプ」特集を組んだ[70]
タブロイド紙デイリーニューズの黒人記者は、トランプが2度離婚していること、牧師に罪を告解した経験がないこと、人種差別的とされる発言が多いことなどを挙げ、キリスト教徒のふりをしている紛い物であると批判した。トランプへの支持を表明したジェリー・ファルウェル(米バージニア州のリバティ大学学長)に対しても「南部の保守的な白人キリスト教徒はいつも人種差別的である」とした上で、トランプのことをファルウェルのような保守派のキリスト教徒に愛される人間ではないとした[71]
ニューヨーク・タイムズは、1月30日、民主党のヒラリー・クリントンを「近代史上、最も能力の高い大統領候補」と称賛する一方で、共和党トランプを「経験もなければ、安全保障や世界規模の貿易について学習することへの興味もない」と評した。
ウォール・ストリート・ジャーナルは2月22日の社説で、トランプ支持を見直さなければ得体の知れないものに真っ逆さまに飛び込むことになると訴えかけ、民主党が党内の社会主義者(バーニー・サンダース)を「甘やかさなかったように」、共和党支持者も反トランプ票を1人の対抗馬に集めることが望まれるとした

Trump was born and raised in New York City and received a bachelor’s degree in economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1968.

 

In 1971 he took control of his family‘s real estate and construction firm, Elizabeth Trump & Son, and later renamed it The Trump Organization.

 

During his career, Trump has built, renovated or managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos and golf courses. He also branded other products and activities with his name. He owned the Miss USA pageants from 1996 to 2015,

 

and has made cameo appearances in films and television series. From 2004 to 2015, Trump hosted and co-produced The Apprentice, a reality television series on NBC.

 

He sought the Reform Party‘s presidential nomination in 2000, but withdrew before voting began. As of 2016, he was listed by Forbes as the 336th wealthiest person in the world, and 156th in the United States, with a net worth of $4.5 billion.[3]

Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign received unprecedented media coverage and international attention. Some of his statements in interviews, on Twitter, and at campaign rallies have been controversial or false. Several rallies during the primaries were accompanied by protests.

 

Trump’s platform included renegotiation of U.S.–China trade deals, opposition to particular trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, pursuit of energy independence using all energy sources with opposition to regulations and agreements aimed at combating climate change such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement,

 

stronger enforcement of immigration laws together with building a wall along the Mexico–U.S. border, reform of veterans‘ care, repeal and replacement of Obamacare, abolition of Common Core education standards, investments in the country’s infrastructure and a simplified tax code with lower rates.

 

Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump called for a temporary ban on Muslim immigration, which he later changed to a policy of “extreme vetting” from certain countries troubled by terrorism.

Early life

Further information: Family of Donald Trump

Trump was born on June 14, 1946, in Jamaica, Queens, a neighborhood in New York City, the fourth of five children. His siblings are Maryanne, Fred, Elizabeth, and Robert. Trump’s older brother Fred Jr. died in 1981 from alcoholism, which Trump says led him to never drink alcohol or smoke cigarettes.

Trump is of German ancestry on his father’s side and Scottish ancestry on his mother’s side; his mother, and all four of his grandparents, were born in Europe. His father, Fred Trump (1905–1999), was born in Queens to parents from Kallstadt, Germany, and became one of the biggest real estate developers in New York City.

 

★ウィキペディア 英語版 日本語版を 参考に 幾つかピックアップした。 それぞれ 読んで

これから 世界は どう変わって行くのか 自分なりに 類推し 考えてみよう。 また 自分の生きる道は?

日本は? を考えて見よう。

___________________________________________

ワシントン・ポストは2月25日の社説でトランプの大統領就任阻止を訴えた。トランプが1100万人に上る不法移民を強制送還すると発言した点に触れて、「スターリン政権かポル・ポト政権以来のスケールの強制措置」であると批判、「良心ある共和党指導者がトランプ氏を支援できないと表明し、指名阻止のためにできることをする時だ」と訴えた[75][76]。10月13日には、トランプについて「偏見に満ち、無知で、嘘つきで、自己中心的で、執念深く、狭量で、女性蔑視で、財政面で無頓着。民主主義を軽蔑し、米国の敵に心を奪われている」と強く批判した上で、「根気があり、困難にめげず、決然とし、しかも賢明」なクリントンへの支持を表明した[64]
キリスト教有力紙クリスチャン・ポスト英語版は、トランプを「ミソジニスト(女性差別主義者)であり、なおかつ遊び人である」として、「女性と少数派を貶めている」と批判、トランプを落選させるよう有権者に呼びかけた[77]
フォーリン・ポリシー英語版には、軍にテロ容疑者の家族、疑わしい市民に対する拷問を命じるとするトランプの発言に反対する50人の共同声明が掲載された。彼らは「我々の知る有力な法律家は皆それらを違法だと考えている」として、トランプに違法な命令を出すような約束をやめるように呼びかけた。また米国の大統領が戦争犯罪を行うよう命令しても米軍は法的職業上の義務として拒絶するとした[78]
フィナンシャル・タイムズは、トランプがウィスコンシン州の予備選で敗北すると、投票者がようやくトランプの欠点に気がつき始めたのかもしれないというかすかな希望が見えたとし、有権者に共和党の大多数がトランプに反対する流れに今から続いても決して遅くはないと呼びかけた[79]。トランプ当選後には、アメリカ国民は「自爆テロ犯を政府に送り込んだ」とし、米国の民主主義は南北戦争以来、150年間経験したことのない試練に直面するとして、改めてトランプを酷評した[80]
ガーディアンはトランプ当選を受けて、左派系論壇の重鎮として知られるジョナサン・フリードマン英語版による社説を掲載。トランプの「醜い」選挙キャンペーンやトランプを当選させたアメリカ国民を厳しく批判した[81]
ボストン・グローブは、2016年4月10日、「共和党はトランプを阻止せよ」と題する社説とともに「トランプ大統領」の統治下を想定した架空の記事を掲載してトランプが掲げる1100万人の移民強制送還などの政策を批判した[82]
米国最大手紙USAトゥデイは、2016年9月29日、行き当たりばったりで人種偏見的思想を持つトランプを、確定申告もしない嘘つきであるとして、「米国が大統領に求める性格、知識、堅実さ、誠実さを欠く」トランプは大統領に相応しくないと論評した。政治的中立を謳う同紙が大統領に対する支持・不支持を明確にするのは1982年の創業以来初のことである[83]
老舗雑誌アトランティック英語版もトランプを「主要な政党の候補者としては、大統領選挙史上、最も不適格だ」として政治的中立の立場を52年ぶりに取りやめ、クリントン支持を表明した[84]
長年共和党支持を打ち出してきたテキサス州の最大手紙ダラス・モーニングニューズは、トランプを「党のほぼ全ての理想と相いれない。党員でも保守主義者でもない」と批判し、「大統領になる資格はなく、投票に値しない」として不支持を表明。第二次世界大戦後初めて民主党候補であるクリントンの支持を表明した[85]
アリゾナ州の最大手紙アリゾナ・リパブリックも、創刊時の紙名が「リパブリカン」(共和党員)である共和党支持の新聞であるが、トランプを「保守でもなく、大統領になるべきでもない」として1980年の創刊以来初めて民主党候補を推薦した[86]
その他、共和党寄りの論調で知られる新聞では、ヒューストン・クロニクルテキサス州)が史上2回目、シンシナティ・インクワイアラー英語版オハイオ州)が100年ぶり、サンディエゴ・ユニオン・トリビューン英語版カリフォルニア州)が創刊以来初めて民主党支持を打ち出した他、リッチモンド・タイムズ・ディスパッチ英語版バージニア州)、ニューハンプシャー・ユニオン・リーダー英語版ニューハンプシャー州)、デトロイト・ニュース英語版ミシガン州)のように第3の候補とされるリバタリアン党ゲーリー・ジョンソン元ニューメキシコ州知事を支持する新聞もある[86]

His mother, Mary Trump (née MacLeod, 1912–2000), emigrated to New York from her birthplace of Tong, Lewis, Scotland.[10] Fred and Mary met in New York and married in 1936, establishing their household in Queens.

His uncle, John G. Trump, a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1936 to 1973, was involved in radar research for the Allies in the Second World War, and helped design X-ray machines that provided additional years of life to cancer patients; in 1943, the Federal Bureau of Investigation requested John Trump to examine Nikola Tesla‘s papers and equipment when Tesla died in his room at the New Yorker Hotel.

 

Donald Trump’s grandfather was Frederick Trump who amassed a fortune operating boom-town restaurants and boarding houses in the region of Seattle and Klondike, Canada.[13]

The Trump family were originally Lutherans, but Trump’s parents belonged to the Reformed Church in America.

 

The family name was formerly spelled Drumpf, and later was changed to Trump during the Thirty Years’ War in the 17th century.[15] Trump has said that he is proud of his German American heritage; he served as grand marshal of the 1999 German-American Steuben Parade in New York City.

Educational background

A black-and-white photograph of Donald Trump as a teenager, smiling and wearing a dark uniform with various badges and a light-colored stripe crossing his right shoulder. This image was taken while Trump was in the New York Military Academy in 1964.

Trump at age 18 at the New York Military Academy, June 30, 1964

Trump’s family had a two-story Tudor Revival home on Midland Parkway in Jamaica Estates, where he lived while attending The Kew-Forest School.

 

He left the school at age 13 and was enrolled in the New York Military Academy (NYMA), in Cornwall, New York, where he finished eighth grade and high school. In 1983, Fred Trump told an interviewer that Donald “was a pretty rough fellow when he was small.”[19]

このようなメディアの逆風と、少ない選挙資金で指名争いの首位を保ってきた逆説的な状況については、マスコミ誌上でも多くの分析があり[87]、全体としては主流政治家への不満の他、支持者の見識不足と結論づける論調が多いが、非常に少数の意見としては米大手シンクタンク戦略国際問題研究所(CSIS)のエドワード・ルトワックによる見解などもある[88][89]

なお、トランプ陣営は自身に対して批判したメディアの取材を拒否し、ワシントン・タイムズ、ハフィントン・ポスト、バズフィードデイリー・ビースト英語版ユニビジョンフュージョンマザー・ジョーンズ英語版ポリティコ、ナショナル・レビューなど多くの報道機関の記者から記者証を取り上げたり、トランプの選挙対策本部長コーリー・ルワンドウスキ(後に解任)が質問しようとした女性記者の腕を掴むなどの強硬策に打って出ている[90]

数少ないメディアによる支持表明の例としては、ニューヨーク・ポストがあり、日韓核武装論やメキシコ国境への万里の長城建設といった政策を「新人らしいミス」と一蹴しつつも、「不完全だが、可能性に満ちている」として支持を表明している[91]

日本語メディアの反応[編集]

アメリカ大統領選挙は世界中の政治や経済の秩序に大きな影響を与えるため世界中のメディアが注目しており[92]、アメリカの同盟国として最大の経済力を持つ日本でも新聞各紙はトランプの躍進について社説で論評している。

発行部数が世界最大の日刊紙、読売新聞は、3月3日の社説で、トランプが中国・日本・メキシコなどを打ち負かすと発言したり、偉大な米国を取り戻すといった「単純なスローガン」の繰り返し[93]によって危うい大衆扇動をしていると評し、トランプを支持する動きを「反知性主義」と断じた[94]
朝日新聞は、トランプが「米国と世界を覆う難題」に冷静に取りくまず「社会の分断」を煽ってきたと言い、トランプは国民の鬱屈する心情に「扇動的」に訴えかけており、「自由主義の旗手を自負する大国」の指導者に相応しくないとした。また米国の強みは流入する移民とともに成長することであるとした上で、米国では白人が着実に減っている反面、中南米系とアジア系が増えているのだから「人種的な意識があるならば時代錯誤である」として、米国民に「移民を排し、外国を責め、国を閉じ」ても何も解決しないので「グローバル」で優秀な指導者を選ぶように期待するとした[95]
毎日新聞は、トランプがメキシコとの国境に壁を作って移民を締め出し、イスラム教徒の入国も禁じる訴えをしていると紹介したうえで、世界がこのような発言で息苦しくなっているとし、共和党にそれでよいのかと疑問を投げかけ、トランプには、「暴言や下品なパフォーマンス」を慎むべきだとした[96]
中日新聞は、「移民やイスラム教徒に対する無用の憎悪をあおり喝采を浴び」る「ポピュリストの手法」によるトランプの躍進に世界の憂慮が深まっていると指摘した[97]
日本経済新聞は、トランプが支持を集める背景を理解すべきとした上で、トランプが「人種差別的な発言」を繰り返しているとした。またトランプの「極端な主張」は必ずしも保守主義を体現しておらず、そのような主張に共鳴する支持者の姿を見ると、歯止めがきかなくなった「大衆迎合主義の危うさ」を感じるとし[98]、米国社会の分裂がトランプや他の候補の政策によって高まれば日本が不満の捌け口にされる恐れもあると指摘した[99]
産経新聞は、『トランプ現象 「痛快だから」では済まぬ』と題する記事を掲載。トランプの政治姿勢について「貿易で日本、中国、メキシコを打ち負かすと連呼」していて、「日米同盟の意義」を理解していない、「有無を言わせず通商紛争を仕掛けるかのような」内向きで独善的な姿勢であるとして、トランプの躍進に不安を覚えるとした。他方、トランプの対立候補には、トランプを支持する人たちが抱えている政治や社会への不満を克服する手法や政策を提示するよう求めた[100]

 

Trump participated in marching drills, wore a uniform, and during his senior year attained the rank of captain. He was transferred from a student command position after the alleged hazing of a new freshman in his barracks by one of Trump’s subordinates; Trump describes the transfer as “a promotion”.

 

In 2015, he told a biographer that NYMA gave him “more training militarily than a lot of the guys that go into the military”.[21]

Trump attended Fordham University in the Bronx for two years, beginning in August 1964. He then transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, which offered one of the few real estate studies departments in United States academia at the time.

 

While there, he worked at the family’s company, Elizabeth Trump & Son, named for his paternal grandmother.

He graduated from Penn in May 1968 with a Bachelor of Science degree in economics.

Trump was not drafted during the Vietnam War.

 

While in college from 1964–68, he obtained four student deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for service based upon a military medical examination, and in 1968 was briefly classified as fit by a local draft board, but was given a 1-Y medical deferment in October 1968.

In an interview for a 2015 biography, he attributed his medical deferment to heel spurs.

In December 1969, he received a high number in the draft lottery, which would also have exempted him from service.

 

 

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Real estate

Logo of The Trump Organization

Prior to graduating from college, Trump began his real estate career at his father, Fred Trump’s company,[32] Elizabeth Trump and Son,[33] which focused on middle-class rental housing in the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. During his undergraduate study, Fred and Donald Trump used a $500,000 investment to successfully reopen the foreclosed Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio.[34]

He was given control of the company in 1971 and, in one of his first acts, renamed it to The Trump Organization.

 

He became the president of the organization in 1973. That year, he and his father drew wider attention when the Justice Department alleged that they were discriminating against blacks who wanted to rent apartments, rather than merely screening out people based on low income as the Trumps stated. An agreement was later signed

in which the Trumps made no admission of wrongdoing, and under which qualified minority applicants would be presented by the Urban League.

Trump’s first big deal in Manhattan was the remodeling of the Grand Hyatt Hotel in 1978 next to Grand Central Terminal from an older Commodore Hotel, which was largely funded by a $70 million construction loan jointly guaranteed by Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel chain.

In 1978, Trump finished negotiations to develop Trump Tower, a 58-story, 202-meter (663-foot) skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, for which The New York Times attributed his “persistence” and “skills as a negotiator”.[41] The building was completed in 1983, and houses both the primary penthouse condominiumresidence of Donald Trump and the headquarters of The Trump Organization.[42] Trump Tower was the setting of the NBC television show The Apprentice, including a fully functional television studio set.[43]

政見

選挙キャンペーンロゴ・Make America Great Again

選挙キャンペーンキャップ・Make America Great Again(赤バージョン)

1987年以前と2001年~2009年にかけては民主党員であり、同党のクリントン元大統領夫妻に過去10回[105]に亘って献金もしている。また1999年~2001年までの間、アメリカ合衆国改革党にも所属していた。2000年の大統領選には同党から立候補しようとしたが結局断念。2016年の大統領選では共和党から出馬しているが、アメリカ改革党の支持も得ている。

トランプの政策的主張は共和党の主流派とは大きく異なっており、政見について敵対する勢力からは大衆迎合主義(ポピュリズム)であると揶揄されることも多い。

トランプをポピュリストとする1人でロイター通信のコラムニスト、ビル・シュナイダー(英語)によれば、ポピュリストとしてのトランプには右翼ポピュリストの特徴と左翼ポピュリストの特徴が両方あるという[106]

シュナイダーによれば、ポピュリストにも右翼と左翼の区別があり、左翼ポピュリストはウォール街と「富を独占する1%の富裕層」を攻撃するが[107]、右翼ポピュリストはリベラルの俗物ぶりとエゴの大きさを批判し、高学歴者がキリスト教の伝統的価値を破壊することを批判する[108]

そしてドナルド・トランプはそれが合体しており、自分自身が富裕層であるのにウォール街を愛しておらず、右派のように移民、少数派、女性を攻撃するばかりか、左派のようにヘッジファンド嫌いであり、ウォール街の側も、反トランプの広告に何百万ドルも使って、トランプの勝利を阻もうとしているという[106]

こうしたトランプの主張の支持者は、ニューヨーク・タイムズによれば「高校を出ていない白人」「農業や製造業といった古い産業の底辺」であり[109]ウォール・ストリート・ジャーナルによれば「高卒の白人、特に男」「下流労働者で非民主的な思想の持ち主」だという。また支持者に移民はほとんど居ないと言われている。しかし一部の合法な移民からは支持されているという[110]

Harrah’s at Trump Plaza opened in Atlantic City, New Jersey in 1984. The hotel/casino was built by Trump with financing by Holiday Corp.[44] and operated by the Harrah’s gambling unit of Holiday Corp. The casino’s poor results exacerbated disagreements between Trump and Holiday Corp.

 

Trump also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million. When completed in 1985, the hotel/casino became Trump Castle. Trump’s wife, Ivana, managed the property.

Trump acquired the Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida, in 1985 for $5 million, plus $3 million for the home’s furnishings. In addition to using the home as a winter retreat, Trump also turned it into a private club with membership fees of $150,000.

 

At about the same time, he acquired a condominium complex in Palm Beach with Lee Iacocca that became Trump Plaza of the Palm Beaches.

Repairs on the Wollman Rink in Central Park, built in 1955, were started in 1980 by a general contractor unconnected to Trump, with an expected 2 12-year construction schedule, but were not completed by 1986.

 

Trump took over the project, completed it in three months for $1.95 million, which was $750,000 less than the initial budget, and then operated the rink for one year with all profits going to charity in exchange for the rink’s concession rights.

Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan in 1988. He paid $400 million for the property and once again tapped Ivana to manage its operation and renovation.[49]

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Later in 1988, Trump acquired the Taj Mahal Casino in Atlantic City in a transaction with Merv Griffin and Resorts International.

The casino was opened in April 1990, and was built at a total cost of $1.1 billion, which at the time made it the most expensive casino ever built.

Financed with $675 million in junk bonds at a 14% interest rate, the project entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy the following year. Banks and bondholders, facing potential losses of hundreds of millions of dollars, opted to restructure the debt.

The Taj Mahal emerged from bankruptcy on October 5, 1991, with Trump ceding 50 percent ownership in the casino to the bondholders in exchange for lowered interest rates and more time to pay off the debt.

He also sold his financially challenged Trump Shuttle airline and his 282-foot (86 m) megayacht, the Trump Princess.

 

The property was repurchased in 1996 and consolidated into Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts, which filed for bankruptcy in 2004 with $1.8 billion in debt, filing again for bankruptcy five years later with $50 million in assets and $500 million in debt. The restructuring ultimately left Trump with 10% ownership in the Trump Taj Mahal and other Trump casino properties.

Trump served as chairman of the organization, which was renamed Trump Entertainment Resorts, from mid-1995 until early 2009, and served as CEO from mid-2000 to mid-2005.

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Bankruptcies

Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, but hotel and casino businesses of his have been declared bankrupt six times between 1991 and 2009 to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds.

Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, “I do play with the bankruptcy laws – they’re very good for me” as a tool for trimming debt.

The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York: Trump Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (1992), Plaza Hotel(1992), Trump Castle Hotel and Casino (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).

 

Trump said, “I’ve used the laws of this country to pare debt … We’ll have the company. We’ll throw it into a chapter. We’ll negotiate with the banks. We’ll make a fantastic deal. You know, it’s like on The Apprentice. It’s not personal. It’s just business.”

An analysis of Trump’s business career by The Economist in 2016, concludes that his “… performance [from 1985 to 2016] has been mediocre compared with the stock market and property in New York”, noting both his successes and bankruptcies.

A subsequent analysis by The Washington Post, whose reporters were denied press credentials by the Trump presidential campaign, concluded that “Trump is a mix of braggadocio, business failures, and real success.”

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Further developments

Trump acquired an old, vacant office building on Wall Street in Manhattan in 1996. After a complete renovation, it became the seventy-story Trump Building at 40 Wall Street.[68] After his father died in 1999, Trump and his siblings received equal portions of his father’s estate valued at $250–300 million.[69]

In 2001, Trump completed Trump World Tower, a 72-story residential tower across from the United Nations Headquarters.[70] Trump also began construction on Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson River. He continued to own commercial space in Trump International Hotel and Tower, a 44-story mixed-use (hotel and condominium) tower on Columbus Circle which he acquired in 1996,[71] and also continued to own millions of square feet of other prime Manhattan real estate.[72]

Trump acquired the former Hotel Delmonico in Manhattan in 2002. It was re-opened with 35 stories of luxury condominiums in 2004 as the Trump Park Avenue.[73]

Trump has licensed his name and image for the development of a number of real estate projects including two in Florida that have gone into foreclosure.[74] The Turkish owner of Trump Towers Istanbul, who pays Trump for the use of his name, was reported in December 2015 to be exploring legal means to dissociate the property after the candidate’s call to temporarily ban Muslims from entering the United States.[75]

Trump also licensed his name to son-in-law Jared Kushner‘s fifty-story Trump Bay Street, a Jersey City luxury development that has raised $50 million of its $200 million capitalization largely from wealthy Chinese nationals who, after making an initial down payment of $500,000 in concert with the government’s expedited EB-5 visa program, can usually obtain United States permanent residency for themselves and their families after two years.[76] Trump is a partner with Kushner Properties only in name licensing and not in the building’s financing.[76]

 

Golf courses

A wide, sprawling golf course. In the background is the Turnberry Hotel, a two-story hotel with white façade and a red roof. This picture was taken in Ayrshire, Scotland.

A view of the Turnberry Hotel, in Ayrshire, Scotland

The Trump Organization operates many golf courses and resorts in the United States and around the world. The number of golf courses that Trump owns or manages is about 18, according to Golfweek.[77] Trump’s personal financial disclosure with the Federal Elections Commission stated that his golf and resort revenue for the year 2015 was roughly $382 million.[78][79]

In 2006, Trump bought the Menie Estate in Balmedie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, creating a golf resort against the wishes of some local residents[80] on an area designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest.[81][82] A 2011 independent documentary, You’ve Been Trumped, by British filmmaker Anthony Baxter, chronicled the golf resort’s construction and the subsequent struggles between the locals and Donald Trump.[83] Despite Trump’s promises of 6,000 jobs, in 2016, by his own admission, the golf course has created only 200 jobs.[84] In June 2015, Trump made an appeal objecting to an offshore windfarm being built within sight of the golf course,[85] which was dismissed by five justices at the UK Supreme Court in December 2015.[86]

外交

反共主義や自由化、民主化を掲げて介入するジョージ・W・ブッシュ元大統領をはじめとする共和党ネオコンや、ヒラリー・クリントンなどの民主党のタカ派とはトランプは一線を画していると見られており、外国の事に関与するよりも国内問題に集中して取り組むべきだというモンロー主義孤立主義)により近いという見方もある。トランプの古くからの親友[111]で長年アドバイザーだったロジャー・ストーンリチャード・ニクソンの崇拝者であり、トランプには輸入課徴金の採用[112]やニクソンの演説の引用[113]など保護主義的で国益重視だったニクソンの影響があるともされている[111]。ニクソンの腹心だったヘンリー・キッシンジャーを「非常に尊敬してる」として度々助言を仰いでいる[114][115]

トランプは自らの外交方針について「私は孤立主義者ではないが、’’米国が第一’’だ(I’m “America First.” )」「我々はあらゆる国と親しくするが、いかなる国に対しても付け入る隙を与えない」と要約している[116][117][118][119][120][121]

ときに米国のリベラル・保守派の双方が非難している他国の指導者を支持するかのような発言が見られ、1990年にインタビューの中で、崩壊前年のソビエト連邦天安門事件直後の中国について語った箇所は、トランプが共和党候補者でタカ派であるにも関わらず、共和党右派からも批判されている。

インタビュアーがソビエト連邦の情勢をどう見るか尋ねると、トランプは「ピケが多発しており、今すぐにも革命が起こる。ロシアはリーダーシップを失って混乱している。がっちりした手を講じないゴルバチョフ大統領(当時)に問題があるのだろう。」と答えた。

この前年(89年)に起きた中国の天安門事件を念頭において「がっちりした手とは中国のような対応?」とインタビュアーが質問すると「中国は学生たちを一掃した。彼らは悪いやつで恐ろしい。だが、彼らは我々に力の強さを見せつけた。一方の我々の国は、弱くなっている」とコメントした[122]

また、「ソビエト連邦は転覆すると予言しておく。ゴルバチョフが極端な弱さを示しているからだ。突然いたるところで騒乱がおきて、究極的には暴力革命に繋がるだろう。ゴルバチョフは素敵なリーダー扱いされており今後も国際的な信用を増していくだろうが、それは彼がソ連を破壊しているからだ。」とゴルバチョフの改革がソ連を脆弱化させているという認識を示した。

この発言は、右派ナショナル・レビューの共和党とイラク戦争を支持する編集幹部から、「(ソ連や中国の強権政治について)こんな発言をする人間だからプーチンを褒めても驚くには値しない」「自由や民主主義や人権に背を向ける民主党のように、共和党まで落ちてしまうのか。」「私は残忍で殺人的で卑怯な中国政府を吹き飛ばしたかった!」と非難されている[122]

この発言はCNNで行われたテレビ討論会でも追及され、その際にも天安門で起きたことを支持していないと強調した上で、中国政府が「暴動」を押さえ込んだという表現を使ったことで[123]、天安門事件でリーダー格だった王丹[124]魏京生[125]ウイグル人ウーアルカイシ[126]といった著名な中国民主化運動家から「まるで中国共産党の指導者」「中国共産党による抑圧に反対する者への侮辱だ」「アメリカの価値観の敵」として抗議を受けている。

ロシアや中国とは小さくない問題を抱えてるとしながらも、「敵対関係になってはならず、共通の利益を見いだすべきだ」と発言している[127]

対ロシア[編集]

In April 2014, Trump purchased the Turnberry hotel and golf resort in Ayrshire, Scotland, which is a regular fixture in the Open Championshiprota.[87][88] After extensive renovations and a remodeling of the course by golf architect Martin Ebert, Turnberry was re-opened on June 24, 2016.[89]

Business career

Sports events

Trump at a baseball game in 2009. He is wearing a baseball cap and sitting amid a large crowd, behind a protective net.

Trump at a baseball game in 2009

In 1983, Trump’s New Jersey Generals became a charter member of the new United States Football League (USFL). The USFL played its first three seasons during the spring and summer, but Trump convinced the majority of the owners of other USFL teams to move the USFL 1986 schedule to the fall, directly opposite the National Football League (NFL), arguing that it would eventually force a merger with the NFL, which would supposedly increase their investment significantly.[90]

After the 1985 season, the Generals merged with the Houston Gamblers, but had continuing financial troubles. The USFL, which was down to just seven active franchises from a high of 18, was soon forced to fold, despite winning an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL.[91]

Trump remained involved with other sports after the Generals folded, operating golf courses in several countries.[91] He also hosted several boxing matches in Atlantic City at the Trump Plaza, including Mike Tyson’s 1988 fight against Michael Spinks, and at one time, acted as a financial advisor to Tyson.[91][92][93]

In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race, which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of European races such as the Tour de France or the Giro d’Italia. The inaugural race was controversial, and Trump withdrew his sponsorship after the second Tour de Trump in 1990, because his other business ventures were experiencing financial woes. The race continued for several more years as the Tour DuPont.[94][95]

対ロシア

2015年9月にはシリアで空爆を続けるロシア軍について「ロシアはアメリカに敬意を払っていないが、もしイスラム国を攻撃したいのならロシアに好きにさせればいい。イスラム国を排除させるのだ。我々もイスラム国を排除したいのだから気にすることなどない」と発言。ロシアが主導権を握ることを容認する考えを示した[128]。2016年7月には「イスラム国に対抗して、我々がロシアや中国などと一緒になってイスラム国がもたらす地獄と混乱を一掃すれば素晴らしいだろう?」[129]と発言している。

当時はソ連だった80年代からロシアや他の旧ソ連構成国[130]でもビジネスを行っている経験上、ロシアとも関係を深めるべきであると発言しており[131]、「米ロがもっと協力すれば、テロを根絶し世界平和を再構築することができると常に感じている。貿易のみならず、あらゆる恩恵が相互の信頼関係からもたらされる」と述べている。

トランプはウラジミール・プーチンを「内外で尊敬されている人物」「オバマと違って少なくともリーダーだ」と称賛しており、プーチン大統領もトランプを「トランプ氏には才能がある」と評価している[132]。ただし、トランプは「ロシアとは関係はよくなると思うが、もしかしたらそうでもないかもしれない。私をプーチン大統領が褒めたといっても、これは交渉の助けにならない」とも発言している[133]

トランプ陣営が制作した選挙宣伝用ビデオの中で、ナレーションがロシアを「最強の敵」と表現したことについては、ロシアの大統領報道官ドミトリー・ペスコフは「ロシアを悪魔のように扱っている」と批判した[134]

また、国際空域で米軍機へのロシア軍戦闘機の接近が相次ぐことに関連して、オバマはロシアに弱腰であるとして、「ロシアの戦闘機が米国機に接近しても、外交が役に立たないなら、それらを撃墜する必要がある」とも明言している[135]

民主党のメール流出事件については「ロシアや中国といった我々の友人はハッキングの地獄に突き落としたのだ」[136]「ロシアにはさらにメールを見つけてもらいたい」「ロシアと中国、或いは他の国がメールを持っているなら、正直に言う、彼らは私に見せてほしい」[137][138]と発言している。

大統領選勝利後は電話会談でプーチン大統領に対して「強固で永続的な関係を築きたい」と述べたとする声明を発表した[139]

対中東[編集]

Trump attempted to buy the NFL’s Buffalo Bills in 2014 but was unsuccessful. During his 2016 presidential run, he was critical of the NFL’s updated concussion rules, complaining on the campaign trail that the game has been made “soft” and “weak”, saying a concussion is just “a ding on the head.” He accused referees of throwing penalty flags needlessly just to be seen on television “so their wives see them at home.”[96]

Beauty pageants

Further information: Miss USA, Miss Universe, and Miss Teen USA

From 1996 until 2015,[97] Trump owned part or all of the Miss Universe, Miss USA, and Miss Teen USA beauty pageants. The Miss Universe pageant was founded in 1952 by the California clothing company Pacific Mills.[98] Trump was dissatisfied with how CBS scheduled his pageants, and took both Miss Universe and Miss USA to NBC in 2002.[99][100]

In 2006, Miss USA winner Tara Conner tested positive for cocaine, but Trump let her keep the crown, for the sake of giving her a second chance.[101] That decision by Trump was criticized by Rosie O’Donnell, which led to a feud in which Trump and O’Donnell exchanged public criticisms.[102] In 2012, Trump won a $5 million arbitration award against a contestant who said the show was rigged.[103]

In 2015, NBC and Univision both ended their business relationships with the Miss Universe Organization after Trump’s controversial 2015 presidential campaign remarks about Mexican illegal immigrants.[104][105] Trump subsequently filed a $500 million lawsuit against Univision, alleging a breach of contract and defamation.[106][107]

On September 11, 2015, Trump announced that he had become the sole owner of the Miss Universe Organization by purchasing NBC’s stake and that he had “settled” his lawsuits against the network,[108] though it was unclear whether Trump had yet filed lawsuits against NBC.[109] He sold his own interests in the pageant shortly afterwards to WME/IMG.[97] The $500 million lawsuit against Univision was settled in February 2016, but terms of the settlement were not disclosed.[110]

Trump University

Main article: Trump University

Trump University LLC was an American for-profit education company that ran a real estate training program from 2005 until at least 2010. After multiple lawsuits, it is now defunct. It was founded by Donald Trump and his associates, Michael Sexton and Jonathan Spitalny.

 

The company offered courses in real estate, asset management, entrepreneurship, and wealth creation, charging between $1,500 and $35,000 per course.

 

In 2005 the operation was notified by New York State authorities that its use of the word “university” violated state law. After a second such notification in 2010, the name of the operation was changed to the “Trump Entrepreneurial Institute”.Trump was also found personally liable for failing to obtain a business license for the operation.

対中東

これまでの中東政策には否定的であり、イラク戦争にも反対してきた。

CNN番組の中では、次のように述べた[140]

わかるだろ、あなたがサダム・フセインを好きかしらないが、彼はテロリストを殺していた。テロリストにとってイラクは楽しい場所ではなかった。ところが今や、イラクは「テロリズムのハーバード大学」(Harvard of terrorism)だ[141]
数年前のイラクを見たらわかる。彼(サダム)が良いやつだったと言うつもりはない。彼はおそろしい奴だったが、今よりもマシだった。
“ If you look at Iraq from years ago, I’m not saying he (Saddam) was a nice guy. He was a horrible guy but it’s better than it is now,
人々は頭を刎ね飛ばされたり、溺れさせられたりしている。今この時、彼らの状態は、かつてなく最低で、サダム・フセインやカダフィの時代より悪い。
“ People are getting their heads chopped off. They’re being drowned. Right now it’s far worse than ever [than it was] under Saddam Hussein or Gaddafi,
何が起こったか見てくれ。リビヤは大惨事だ。大災害だ。イラクも大災害。シリアも大災害。中東まるごと大災害だ。全部、ヒラリーとオバマの時代に吹き飛んでしまった。
“ look what happened. Libya is a catastrophe. Libya is a disaster. Iraq is a disaster. Syria is a disaster. The whole Middle East. It all blew up around Hillary Clinton and around Obama. It blew up.

一方で、2002年ラジオの中では、「あなたならイラクに侵攻する?」と問われて「するだろうね(Yeah I guess so)」と答えていたので、かつてはイラク戦争を支持していたのではないかという指摘もある[142]。トランプはこの件について、「私は開戦する前から反対派になり、2003年からはっきりと反対しているのだから意味がない」と主張した。

イラン核合意については破棄を「私の最優先事項」[143]と訴えている[144]

サウジアラビアについては「守りたいが、彼らはいくら負担してくれるんだ?」と発言した[145]

エジプトについては、「親イスラエルだったホスニ・ムバラク政権を倒してムスリム同胞団を助けた」とオバマの外交政策を批判している[146]

イスラエルを「アメリカの最も信頼できる友」としており、「我々は100%、イスラエルのために戦う。1000%戦う。永遠に戦う」[147]や「イスラエルはユダヤ人の国家であり、永遠にユダヤ人国家として存在することをパレスチナは受け入れなければならない」[148]などと表明するなど、明確にイスラエル寄りの姿勢を示している。

1983年ユダヤ民族基金英語版から米国とイスラエルの関係への貢献を称えられて表彰されており[149]2004年ニューヨーク五番街で行われたイスラエルを応援するパレードでグランドマーシャルを務めたり[150]、「Jewish Voice」というメディアから、ユダヤ人の孫の祖父であることをどう感じるかと聞かれて、「私はユダヤ人の孫だけでなくユダヤの娘(イヴァンカ)もいて、とても光栄に思います」[151]と答えており、父[152]や兄[153]など家族もともにユダヤ人コミュニティとの繋がりは深い[154]

2016年7月に行われた共和党大会では、採択された政策綱領で同盟国イスラエルとの関係強化が掲げられ、パレスチナに言及した二国家解決案の削除などがされたことから「史上最も親イスラエル的な綱領」と称賛した[155]。大統領選の際もイスラエルで前例のない規模の在外投票を呼びかけるキャンペーンを行った[156]。また、ヨルダン川西岸地区でのイスラエルの入植活動を支持しており[157]、自らが掲げるメキシコとの間の壁建設も自身の著書でイスラエル西岸地区の分離壁を参考にしてるとしている[158]

父フレッドの友人[159]でもあったイスラエル首相のベンヤミン・ネタニヤフとは旧知の仲であり[160]、大統領選に出馬する前の2013年にも再選キャンペーンに「本当に偉大な首相だ」と応援する36秒のビデオメッセージを寄せていた[161]。ただし、ネタニヤフ首相も、イスラム教徒を入国禁止にするというトランプの発言に関しては、発言の数時間後には「イスラエルはあらゆる宗教を尊重する」と表明するなど距離を置き、トランプは予定していたイスラエル訪問を「余計なプレッシャーをかけたくないので大統領になってからする」と延期した[162]。2016年9月25日にトランプはネタニヤフ首相との会談を果たし、イラン核合意やイスラエルへの軍事支援を話し合った他、エルサレムをイスラエルの首都として承認することやパレスチナにイスラエルをユダヤ人国家として受け入れさせることで一致した[163]。大統領選の勝利の際もネタニヤフは「トランプはイスラエルの真の友人」と祝福するビデオメッセージを寄せ[164]、トランプも早急な首脳会談を希望してネタニヤフを米国に招待した[160]

In 2013 the state of New York filed a $40 million civil suit claiming that Trump University made false claims and defrauded consumers. In addition, two class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court relating to Trump University; they named Donald Trump personally as well as his companies.

During the presidential campaign, Trump repeatedly criticized judge Gonzalo P. Curiel who oversaw those two cases, alleging bias because of his Mexican heritage. On June 7, 2016, Trump clarified that his concerns about Curiel’s impartiality were not based upon ethnicity alone, but also upon rulings in the case.

The Low v. Trump case was set for trial in San Diego beginning November 28, 2016. Shortly after Trump won the presidency, the parties agreed to a settlement of all three pending cases. In the settlement, Trump did not admit to any wrongdoing but agreed to pay a total of $25 million.

Jason Forge, “the attorney for the plantiffs said the agreement was reached an hour before a hearing for Curiel to weigh Trump’s latest request to delay the trial until after the Jan. 20 inauguration. The plantiff’s attorney said he ‘definitely detected a change of tone and change of approach’ from Trump’s camp after the election”.

 

 

Donald J. Trump Foundation

The Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundation established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving away proceeds from the book Trump: The Art of the Deal by Trump and Tony Schwartz.

The foundation’s funds mostly come from donors other than Trump,who has not given personally to the charity since 2008. The top donors to the foundation from 2004 to 2014 were Vince and Linda McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment, who donated $5 million to the foundation after Trump appeared at WrestleMania in 2007.

The foundation’s tax returns show that it has given to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups. In 2009, for example,

 

the foundation gave $926,750 to about 40 groups, with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical Center Foundation ($100,000), the New York–Presbyterian Hospital ($125,000), the Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the Clinton Foundation ($100,000).

Starting in 2016 The Washington Post began reporting on how the foundation raised and granted money. The Post uncovered several potential legal and ethical violations, such as alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion.

The New York State Attorney General is investigating the foundation “to make sure it is complying with the laws governing charities in New York.”

A Trump spokesman called the investigation a “partisan hit job.” On October 3, 2016, the New York Attorney General’s office notified the Trump Foundation that it was allegedly in violation of New York laws regarding charities, and ordered it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York.

Net worth

A tall rectangular-shaped tower in Las Vegas with exterior windows shimmering with 24-karat gold. It is a sunny day and the building is higher than many of the surrounding buildings, which are also towers. There are mountains in the background. This tower is called the Trump Hotel Las Vegas.

Trump Hotel Las Vegaswhose exterior windows are gilded with 24-karat gold

In 2016, Forbes estimated Trump’s net worth at $3.7 billion, and Bloomberg at $3 billion, making him one of the richest politicians in American history.

 

Trump himself stated that his net worth was over $10 billion, with the discrepancy essentially stemming from the uncertain value of appraised property and of his personal brand.

As of 2016, Forbes ranked him the 156th wealthiest person in the U.S. and the 324th wealthiest in the world.

On June 16, 2015, when announcing his candidacy, Trump released a one-page financial summary stating a net worth of $8,737,540,000.  “I’m really rich”, he said.

 

Forbes believed his suggestion of $9 billion was “a whopper”, figuring it was actually $4.1 billion.

The summary statement includes $3.3 billion worth of “real estate licensing deals, brand and branded developments”, putting a figure on Trump’s estimate of his own brand value.

 

The July 2015 FEC disclosure reports assets worth above $1.4 billion and debts above $265 million. According to Bloomberg, Trump “only reported revenue for [his] golf properties in his campaign filings even though the disclosure form asks for income”, whereas independent filings showed his European golf properties to be unprofitable.

 

Trump was listed on the initial Forbes List of wealthy individuals in 1982 as having an estimated $200 million fortune, including a share of his father’s estimated $200 million net worth. Trump didn’t make the list from 1990 to 1995 following losses which reportedly obliged him to borrow from his siblings’ trusts in 1993.

 

Trump has since told campaign audiences he began his career with “a small loan of one million dollars” from his father, which he paid back with interest.

After Trump made controversial remarks about illegal immigrants in 2015, he lost business contracts with NBCUniversal, Univision, Macy’s, Serta, PVH Corporation, and Perfumania, which Forbes estimated negatively impacted his net worth by $125 million.

 

The value of the Trump brand may have fallen further during his presidential campaign, as some consumers boycotted Trump-branded products and services to protest his candidacy.

 

Bookings and foot traffic at Trump-branded properties fell off sharply in 2016, and the release of the Access Hollywood tape recordings in October 2016 exacerbated this.

However, his subjective brand value rebounded sharply after he won the election.

 

 

Branding and licensing

Trump has marketed his name on a large number of building projects as well as commercial products and services, achieving mixed success doing so for himself, his partners, and investors in the projects.

 

In 2011, Forbes financial experts estimated the value of the Trump brand at $200 million. Trump disputed this valuation, saying his brand was worth about $3 billion.

Many developers pay Trump to market their properties and to be the public face for their projects.For that reason, Trump does not own many of the buildings that display his name.

According to Forbes, this portion of Trump’s empire, actually run by his children, is by far his most valuable, having a $562 million valuation. According to Forbes, there are 33 licensing projects under development including seven “condo hotels” (the seven Trump International Hotel and Tower developments).

Income and taxes

Pursuant to the FEC regulations, Trump published a 92-page financial disclosure form listing all his assets, liabilities, income sources and hundreds of business positions.

According to a July 2015 campaign press release, Trump’s income for the year 2014 was $362 million.

However, Trump has repeatedly declined to publicly release any of his full tax returns, citing a pending IRS audit.

In October 2016, it was revealed that Trump had claimed a loss of $916 million on his 1995 tax returns. As net operating losses from one year can be applied to offset income from future years, this loss allowed him to reduce or eliminate his taxable income during the eighteen-year carry forward period.

Trump acknowledged using the deduction but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied.

The New York Times found that some accountants considered Trump’s tax deduction methods in the early 1990s “legally dubious.”

Independent tax experts stated that “Whatever loophole existed was not ‘exploited’ here, but stretched beyond any recognition” and that it involved “sleight of hand”, further speculating that Trump’s casino bankruptcies were probably related to Trump’s 1995 reported loss.

対アジア

アジア太平洋での海洋安全保障については、2015年9月3日にラジオで司会者から「中国日本フィリピンの船を沈めたら、どう対応するか」と聞かれたときは、「相手に考えを知られたくないから答えない」「『これをする』『ここを攻撃する』と言ってしまうのがオバマ大統領の問題。」と明言しなかった[165]。また、「中国の行動をきっかけに米国が第三次世界大戦を始めるとは考えない」「中国をよく理解している」「中国とは良いビジネスを重ねてきた」として「米国は中国に対して貿易上の影響力を持っている。圧力をかけて譲歩を引き出すことができる」とし[166]尖閣諸島を中国が占領した場合も「答えたくない」としている[167]

また、2016年2月25日テキサス州でのテレビ討論会では「日本、韓国ドイツ、など全ての同盟国を守ることはできない」とし「もっとお金を払わせたいんだ」と、在日・在韓米軍の駐留費用の負担増を求める考えを示した。

3月10日フロリダ州では、社会保障の財源について司会者から聞かれると、「狂気じみた北朝鮮が何かするたびに米国は艦船を派遣するが、事実上、米国が得るものは何もない」と話し、アジア地域を含む在外米軍の駐留経費を削減する可能性に言及した。

3月21日、ワシントン・ポストによるインタビューにおいて[168]、人件費を除いた日韓の米軍駐留経費のうち、50%を日韓が負担していることを指摘された際、「50%? なぜ100%ではないのか?」と答え、海外に基地を有することで米国は利益を得ているかと問われた際には、「個人的にはそう思わない」「米国はかつての地位にはないと思う。米国は大変強く、大変豊かな国だったと思うが、今は貧しい」とした上で、それにも関わらず巨額の予算を自国のためではなく外国の防衛のために投じていると述べた[168][167][169]

3月26日のニューヨーク・タイムズのインタビューの中で[116]、記者から「日本は世界のどの国よりも多額の駐留支援金を払っている」と指摘されると、「払っているが、依然我々が負担しているコストよりも遥かに少ない」と反論し、「米国には日韓の防衛のために巨額の資金を費やす余裕はない」と主張した。その上で、日韓が駐留経費の負担額を大幅に増額しないのであれば、「喜んでそうするわけではないが」、在日・在韓米軍の撤退も辞さないと明言した。更に、NATOや日米等の防衛条約について「非常に不公平」であるとして、再交渉する意向を表明した。

更に、同インタビューの中で、「米国がこのまま弱体化を続けるなら、私が議論するかどうかとは無関係に、日韓は核兵器の保有を望むようになるだろう」「日本が北朝鮮の核の脅威にさらされた場合に、日本が核兵器を保有することは米国にとってそんなに悪いことではないだろう」と述べると共に、記者の「(北朝鮮が何をしでかすかわからないから)日本が自分たち自身の核兵器を必要とするのも分かるし、日本は米国に頼るばかりではいられない…(というわけか)」との発言に対して「本当にその通りだと思っている。特に、北朝鮮の脅威があるから。北朝鮮は日本に対して非常に攻撃的だ。北朝鮮は中国とイラン以外のどの国に対しても攻撃的なんだ」と答え、日韓の核武装に反対しない考えを示唆した [116][117][170]

中国日本に対しては、大統領選出馬表明会見の際にも「中国、メキシコ、日本、その他多くの場所から、仕事を取り返す。私は我々の仕事を取り返し、我々にお金を取り返す」(I’ll bring back our jobs from China, from Mexico, from Japan, from so many places. I’ll bring back our jobs, and I’ll bring back our money.)と言及がある。

この会見では、特に中国への対抗姿勢を鮮明にしており、「中国との貿易交渉で彼らに勝ったことがありますか?。彼らは我々を殺そうとしてるが、私は彼らにいつも勝つ」( When was the last time anybody saw us beating, let’s say, China in a trade deal? They kill us. I beat China all the time.)「私は中国が好きです。私はちょうど中国の誰かに1500万ドルでアパートを売りました。私が彼らを嫌うと思いますか?」( I like China. I sell apartments for— I just sold an apartment for $15 million to somebody from China. Am I supposed to dislike them?)「私は中国のことは大好きです。中国から世界で最大の銀行(中国工商銀行)がやってきたが、米国本部がどこにあるか知っていますか?このビルの中ですよ。トランプ・タワーです。だから中国は大好きですよ」( I love China. The biggest bank in the world is from China. You know where their United States headquarters is located?. In this building, in Trump Tower. In this building, in Trump Tower. I love China.)「みんなは私に中国が嫌いなんですかと聞きます。違います、私は彼らが大好きです。だが彼らの指導者たちは我々の指導者たちよりも遥かに賢く、これでは我々は持ちこたえれません」( People say, “Oh, you don’t like China?” No, I love them. But their leaders are much smarter than our leaders, and we can’t sustain ourself with that.)と発言している[171]。一方でかねてから中国とのビジネス上の関係を強調しており[172][173]、2016年7月29日の演説では「中国は偉大だ。中国が好きだ。われわれは中国とビジネスをするべきだ。もっとうまくやっていけるはずだ」と発言し[174]、大統領選勝利後は電話会談で習近平中国国家主席に対して「中国は偉大で重要な国であり、米国との互恵関係を実現できる」と語ったと報じられ[175]、トランプ側も声明で祝電に感謝して「今後両国は最も強固な関係を築きたい」と述べたと発表した[176][177]

トランプの対中国姿勢を批判する者は、トランプが中国に8社もの合弁会社を所有[178]してその提携先には中国共産党の幹部が経営する国有企業[179]もあることや、トランプが中国の国営銀行に多額の債務を抱えてること[15]、トランプがシカゴのトランプ・インターナショナル・ホテル・アンド・タワーなどで中国の鉄鋼を使用し[180][181]、新ビル建設工事にあたって中国人投資家へ出資を募って彼らに向けて迅速にビザが発行される政府プログラムの利用を勧めていたことを取り上げ「安全保障を損ないかねない」と批判したり[182]、トランプブランドの商品の産地がメイド・イン・チャイナやメイド・イン・メキシコであることを問題視し「全製品をアメリカで生産せよ」と非難するなどしている[183]。 これに対しトランプは、中国やメキシコの通貨が安くなっているためにアメリカブランドがアメリカで生産できなくなってしまっているなどの説明を行っている。

日本については、出馬当時から中国やメキシコと並べ、「米国から雇用を奪った国」として責めたてるなど、「ジャパンバッシング」の急先鋒であり、「日本人と日本企業の競争力は尊敬しているが、好意は抱かない」と発言したこともある[184]。出馬会見では、「彼ら(日本)は、百万台以上の日本車を送ってくるが、我々はどうだ?最後にシボレーを東京で見たのはいつだ?存在しませんよ。彼らは我々をいつも打ち負かしてきた」と発言している[185]。また、日本が米国産牛肉の輸入に課してるものと同率の関税を日本からの自動車輸入に課すべきとしている[186]

1987年から日本をライバル視した言動で知られ、1988年には「日本は我々を愚か者に見せようとしている。日本が同盟国なら我々は敵と直面したくない」、1989年ロックフェラー・センター三菱地所に買収された際は「ニューヨークを吸い尽す日本を止めなくてはならない」、1993年にも日本が全面的な市場開放をしなければ日本製品をボイコットすべきなどと発言していた[187]

為替政策についても批判しており、たびたび「日本の度重なる円安誘導のせいで、友達は高いキャタピラーではなく、コマツトラクターを購入した」[188]、「日本の安倍は(米経済を)殺す者だ、やつは凄い。地獄の円安でアメリカが日本と競争できないようにした」(Abe from Japan, who’s a killer, he’s great. He’s already knocking the hell out of the yen[189][190]などと発言している。ウォールストリート・ジャーナルは「確かに円安は日本の輸出の助けとなっているが、日銀の金融緩和政策は内需拡大とインフレ目標実現のためで、輸出促進のためではない。それに、コマツは米国内で何千もの雇用を創出している」と指摘するなど、論理の粗雑さが指摘されている[191]

日米安保条約についても、アメリカ防衛の義務を日本が負っておらずアメリカが日本を防衛する義務を負っていることに不満があると見られる。1990年には「日本は石油の7割近くを湾岸地域に依存しているが、その活動は米軍が守っている。日本は米軍に守られて石油を持ち帰ってアメリカの自動車メーカーを叩きのめしている」「日本の優れた技術者はビデオデッキや車を作り、アメリカの優れた技術者はミサイルを作って日本を守っている。日本にコストを弁償させるべきじゃないか」と発言。

大統領選挙出馬後には、

“If somebody attacks Japan, we have to immediately go and start World War III, OK? If we get attacked, Japan doesn’t have to help us.”
(「もし誰かが日本を攻撃したら私たちは即座に第3次世界大戦を始める、OK?だが、我々が攻撃を受けたら日本は私たちを助けなくてもいいんだ。」)
“If Japan gets attacked, we have to immediately go to their aid, if we get attacked, Japan doesn’t have to help us.”“That’s a fair deal?”
(「もし日本が攻撃されたら私たちは直ちに救援に行かなくてはならない。もし私たちが攻撃を受けたら日本は私たちを助けなくてもいい。」「この取引は公平なのか?」)

との発言が伝えられている[192][193]

 

Entertainment and media

Further information: Donald Trump filmography

Trump has twice been nominated for an Emmy Award and has made cameo appearances in 12 films and 14 television series.[183] He has also played an oil tycoon in The Little Rascals. Trump is a member of the Screen Actors Guild and receives an annual pension of more than $110,000.[184][185] He has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. Trump also had his own daily talk radio program called Trumped![186][187][188]

The Apprentice

Donald Trump posing with basketball personality Dennis Rodman in a room with paintings adorning the walls. Trump is wearing a suit with a light-colored tie and dress shirt, while Rodman is wearing a brown t-shirt with a design on it, blue jeans, and a baseball cap that also has a design on it.

Trump posing with basketball personality Dennis Rodman during Rodman’s 2009 participation on Celebrity Apprentice

In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show The Apprentice, in which a group of competitors battled for a high-level management job in one of Trump’s commercial enterprises. Contestants were successively “fired” and eliminated from the game. In 2004, Trump filed a trademark application for the catchphrase “You’re fired.”[1][2][3]

For the first year of the show, Trump earned $50,000 per episode (roughly $700,000 for the first season), but following the show’s initial success, he was paid $1 million per episode.

In a July 2015 press release, Trump’s campaign manager said that NBCUniversal had paid him $213,606,575 for his 14 seasons hosting the show, although the network did not verify the statement.

In 2007, Trump received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contribution to television on The Apprentice. In October 2016, the star was targeted by vandals.

Along with British TV producer Mark Burnett, Trump was hired as host of The Celebrity Apprentice, in which celebrities compete to win money for their charities. While Trump and Burnett co-produced the show, Trump stayed in the forefront, deciding winners and “firing” losers. International versions of The Apprentice franchise were co-produced by Burnett and Trump.

On February 16, 2015, NBC announced that they would be renewing The Apprentice for a 15th season. On February 27, Trump stated that he was “not ready” to sign on for another season because of the possibility of a presidential run.

Despite this, on March 18, NBC announced they were going ahead with production.

On June 29, after widespread negative reaction stemming from Trump’s campaign announcement speech, NBC released a statement saying, “Due to the recent derogatory statements by Donald Trump regarding immigrants, NBCUniversal is ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump.

 

Involvement in politics, 1988–2015

a full-page newspaper advertisement in which Trump placed full-page ads critiquing U.S. defense policy

移民対策

中米からの不法移民の取り締まりに積極的な姿勢を示している。シリア難民の受け入れにも反対している。

アメリカ国内に住む不法移民について強制退去させると言っており、アメリカ生まれの不法移民の子供にアメリカの市民権が与えられるという規定を廃止するとも述べた。1100万人に上る不法移民を退去させることは莫大な費用が掛かるし、差別的であると批判を受けながらも、退去させることは実現可能で人道的だとの考えを表明している。

大統領選の出馬会見でも、メキシコからやってくる不法入国者たちが麻薬と犯罪を持ち込んでいるとの見解を述べ、メキシコとの国境沿いに「万里の長城」の様な国境の壁を造り、(注・CNNの試算では数十億ドルになるという)その建設費をメキシコに払わせると発言した[194]

国境線に壁が必要だという主張についてメキシコ大統領報道官のエドゥアルド・サンチェスはブルームバーグの電話インタビューで「それはもちろん間違っている」「そういう考えはメキシコが果たしている役割をものすごく無視していて、そんなことを主張する候補者の無責任さを示すものだ」とコメントしており、その費用をメキシコに負わせるという発言に対しても「トランプの発言には米国の現実についての知識の巨大な欠如が反映されている」「アメリカにいるメキシコ人は熱意を持って働いている。彼らは仕事をよくやっている」として[195]、負担に応じない方針を示しているが、トランプは現在まで撤回していない。

イスラム教徒について一部のセキュリティ会社が発表した調査結果(アメリカ人を攻撃することをジハードの一部として正当化できると回答した割合が25%に上る)などを引用し、「ムスリムのアメリカへの憎しみは我々の理解を超えている」と何度も主張しており[196][197]、ムスリム系夫妻が14人を銃撃し殺害する事件が起きると、イスラム教徒の入国を禁止するように提案したり[198]、一部のモスクを閉鎖させてムスリムを監視すべきと提案している[199]

Trump first expressed interest in running for office in 1987, when he spent $100,000 to place full-page ads critiquing U.S. defense policy in several newspapers.

Trump considered the idea of running for president in 1988, 2004, and 2012, and for Governor of New York in 2006 and 2014, but did not enter those races.

He was considered as a potential running mate for George H. W. Bush on the Republican Party’s 1988 presidential ticket but lost out to future Vice President Dan Quayle. There is dispute over whether Trump or the Bush camp made the initial pitch.

In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the presidential nomination of the Reform Party in 2000.

A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support.

Trump eventually dropped out of the race due to party infighting, but still won the party’s California and Michigan primaries after doing so.

In February 2009, Trump appeared on The Late Show with David Letterman, and spoke about the automotive industry crisis of 2008–10. He said that “instead of asking for money”, General Motors “should go into bankruptcy and work that stuff out in a deal”.

As Trump publicly speculated about seeking the 2012 Republican presidential nomination, a Wall Street Journal/NBC News poll released in March 2011 found Trump leading among potential contenders, one point ahead of former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney.

 

A Newsweek poll conducted in February 2011 showed Trump within a few points of Barack Obama, with many voters undecided in the November 2012 general election for president of the United States.

A poll released in April 2011 by Public Policy Polling showed Trump having a nine-point lead in a potential contest for the Republican nomination for president while he was still actively considering a run.

His moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional tools for his reality show The Apprentice.

Trump played a leading role in longstanding “birther” conspiracy theories. Beginning in March 2011, Trump publicly questioned Barack Obama‘s citizenship and eligibility to serve as President.

Although Obama had released his birth certificate in 2008, Trump said that it was missing and demanded to see it.

 

Trump said that he had sent investigators to Hawaii to research the question, but he did not follow up with any findings. He also repeated a debunked allegation that Obama’s grandmother said she had witnessed his birth in Kenya.

When the White House later released Obama’s long-form birth certificate, Trump took credit for obtaining the document, saying “I hope it checks out.”

 

His official biography mentions his purported role in forcing Obama’s hand, and he has defended his pursuit of the issue when prompted. In 2013 he said, “I don’t think I went overboard. Actually, I think it made me very popular.”

When asked in 2015 whether Obama was born in the United States, Trump said he did not want to discuss it further.Earlier, Trump had also called for Obama to release his student records, questioning whether his grades warranted entry into an Ivy League school.

 

In September 2016, Trump publicly acknowledged that Obama was born in the U.S., and falsely stated that rumors to the contrary had been started by Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign.

 

In February 2011, Trump made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). His appearance at CPAC was organized by GOProud, an LGBT conservative organization, in conjunction with GOPround supporter Roger Stone, who was close with Trump. GOPround pushed for a write-in campaign for Donald Trump at CPAC’s presidential straw poll.

 

Christopher R. Barron, co-founder of GOProud who would later not only endorse Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign, but also launch LGBT for Trump, said he “would love to see Mr. Trump run for president.” The 2011 CPAC speech Trump gave is credited for helping kick-start his political career within the Republican Party.

 

In the 2012 Republican primaries, Trump generally had polled at or below 17 percent among the crowded field of possible candidates. On May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012 election, while also saying he would have won.

In 2013, Trump was a featured speaker at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC).  During the lightly attended early-morning speech, Trump said that President Obama gets “unprecedented media protection”, spoke against illegal immigration, and advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security.

Also in 2013, he spent over $1 million to research a possible run for president of the United States.  

In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014, against Andrew Cuomo; Trump said in response that while New York had problems and taxes were too high, running for governor was not of great interest to him.

 

He also made statements denying climate change that were discordant with the opinion of the scientific community.

In February 2015, Trump said he told NBC that he was not prepared to sign on for another season of The Apprentice at that time, as he mulled his political future.

Political affiliations

Trump shaking hands with President Ronald Reagan in 1987. Both are standing and facing each other.

With President Ronald Reagan at White House reception in 1987

Trump’s party affiliation has changed over the years. Although his party affiliation prior to 1987 is unclear, Trump was an early supporter of Republican Ronald Reagan for United States President in the late 1970s.

 

By 1987, he identified as a Republican. During the 1992 Presidential Election, there was speculation that Trump would be President George H. W. Bush’s running mate and replace then-Vice-President Dan Quayle.

Bush felt the proposal was “strange and unbelievable”, and ultimately Quayle was kept on the ticket.

In 1999, Trump switched to the Reform Party for three years and ran a presidential exploratory campaign for its nomination. After his run, Trump left the party in 2001 due to the involvement of David Duke, Pat Buchanan, and Lenora Fulani within the party.

From 2001 to 2008 he was a Democrat, but in 2008 he endorsed Republican John McCain for President. In 2009, he officially changed his party registration to Republican. In December 2011, Trump became an Independent for five months before returning to the Republican Party, where he has pledged to stay.

Trump has made contributions to campaigns of both Republican Party and Democratic Party candidates, with the top ten recipients of his political contributions being six Democrats and four Republicans. After 2011, his campaign contributions were more favorable to Republicans than to Democrats.

In February 2012, Trump endorsed Republican Mitt Romney for President.  When asked in 2015 which recent President he prefers, Trump picked Democrat Bill Clinton over the Republican Bushes.

According to a New York state report, Trump circumvented corporate and personal campaign donation limits in the 1980s—although no laws were broken—by donating money to candidates from 18 different business subsidiaries, rather than donating primarily in his own name.

 

Trump told investigators he did so on the advice of his lawyers. He also said the contributions were not to curry favor with business-friendly candidates, but simply to satisfy requests from friends.

 

 

Political positions

Donald Trump and his running mate for vice president, Mike Pence, at the Republican National Convention in July 2016. They appear to be standing in front of a huge screen with the colors of the American flag displayed on it. Trump is at left, facing toward the viewer and making "thumbs-up" gestures with both hands. Pence is at right, facing toward Trump and clapping.

Trump and his running mate, Indiana Governor Mike Pence, July 2016

Trump has described his political leanings and positions in various ways over time.[264][265][266] Politico has described his positions as “eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory”.[266] He has listed several different party affiliations over the years[266][267] and has also run as a Reform Party candidate.[267] The positions that he has revised or reversed include stances on progressive taxation, abortion, and government involvement in health care.[266]

Trump’s political positions are widely described by the media as “populist”.[268][269] Trump has described his political positions in various and often contradictory ways over time.[264][270] Trump stated, “I have evolved on many issues. There are some issues that are very much the same, I’ve been constant on many issues. But I have evolved on certain issues.”[271] PolitiFact.com wrote that it is difficult to determine Trump’s stance on issues, given his frequent changes in position and “his penchant for using confusing, vague and even contradictory language”.[272] PolitiFact.com counted at least 17 times when Trump said something and then denied having said it.[273]

Social issues

Trump describes himself as “pro-life” and generally opposes abortion with some exceptions: rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother.[274] The Susan B. Anthony List, an anti-abortion political advocacy group, praised Trump’s list of potential Supreme Court nominees as “exceptionally strong”, while NARAL Pro-Choice America called the candidates on the list “a woman’s worst nightmare”.[275] Trump has stated that he supports “traditional marriage”.[276] He opposes the 2015 Obergefell v. Hodges Supreme Court ruling that legalized same-sex marriage nationwide[276][277][278] and believes the decision should be left to individual states.[277] Trump had stated that if he were elected, he would “strongly consider” appointing Supreme Court justices that would overturn the ruling.[279] Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says he is opposed to gun control in general,[280] although his views have shifted over time.[281] He supports fixing the federal background check system so that criminal and mental health records are always put into the system.[282] Trump opposes legalizing recreational marijuana but supports legalizing medical marijuana.[283] Trump favors capital punishment.[284][285]

Economic issues

Trump’s campaign tax plan calls for reducing the corporate tax rate to 15%, concurrent with the elimination of various business loopholes and deductions.[286] Personal income taxes would also be reduced; the top rate would be reduced from 39.6% to 25%, a large “zero bracket” would be created, and the alternative minimum tax would be eliminated, as would the estate tax (which currently applies to individual estates over $5.45 million or $10.9 million per married couple).[287] Under Trump’s economic plan, families with head-of-household filing status making between $20,000 and $200,000, including many single parents, would pay more in taxes than under current tax law, due to Trump’s elimination of some deductions and exemptions.[288][289] Several reports assess that the economy would be “diminished” by heavy job losses and recession under Trump’s economic policies,[290][291][292] with a large number of economists, including 19 of 32 living Nobel laureates, warning against his economic policies.[293][294] Two analyses find that Trump’s economic plan will have mixed results; one analysis finds that Trump’s plan would create short-term economic gains but major long-term economic losses in terms of jobs,[295] and another analysis finds that the plan will create 2.2 million jobs, a major increase in capital stock and some wage growth, but by increasing federal debt by between $2.6 trillion and $3.9 trillion.[296]

Trump’s comments about the minimum wage have been inconsistent:[297][298][299] he has said that a low minimum wage is good;[300] that the minimum wage should not be raised;[301][302][303]that the minimum wage should be raised;[304][305] that he would like an increase, but the states should do the increasing;[306][307] that he is against any federal minimum wage floor;[308] and that he is in favor of a $10 federal minimum wage, but “let the states make the deal”.[309]

Trump identifies as a “free trader“, but says that trade must be “reasonably fair”, and has described supporters of international trade deals that are good for other countries but not good for the United States as “blood suckers”.[310][311][312] He has often been referred to as “protectionist“.[313][314][315][316][317] He says NAFTA has been the “worst trade deal in history”, and would as president either renegotiate or break the NAFTA agreement.[318][319] He opposes the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).[320] Trump proposes to raise tariffs on Chinese exports to the United States by 45%, and has raised the idea of placing 35% tariffs on Mexican exports to the United States.[321][322] Trump has called the World Trade Organization (WTO) a “disaster”,[323] and favors renegotiating or leaving the WTO unless it allows his proposed tariff increases.[324]

Health care

Trump favors repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) with a different free-market plan that would allow health insurance to be sold across state lines, enable individuals to deduct health insurance premiums, expand health savings accounts, and give more control of Medicaid to the states.[325] He has voiced support for a single-payer healthcare system in the past, but distanced himself from the idea during his 2016 campaign.[326] In October 2016 he falsely said that he had said the ACA was a “disaster” since before it was passed by Congress.[327]He said in June 2009 that he loved the idea, but questioned whether the country could afford it.[328][neutrality is disputed] Trump favors getting rid of backlogs and waitlists that are the focus of the Veterans Health Administration scandal, and believes that Veterans Affairs facilities need to be upgraded.[329]

Education

Trump has stated his support for school choice and local control for primary and secondary schools.[330] He opposes the Common Core State Standards Initiative for primary and secondary schools,[331] and has called Common Core “a disaster” that must be ended.[332] He has stated he would abolish all or part of the Department of Education.[333]

Climate change

Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate change,[334][335] repeatedly contending that global warming is a “hoax”.[276][336] He has said that the EPA is a “disgrace” and has promised to cut its budget,[337] and to cut NASA’s Earth Science Program.[338] Trump has pledged to eliminate the Clean Power Plan[339] and withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement, which calls for reductions in carbon emissions in more than 170 countries, saying that it treats the United States unfairly and gives favorable treatment to countries like China.[340] However, after winning the presidency, he said he has an “open mind” towards the Paris agreement.[341] Trump’s senior campaign adviser Bob Walker maintains that “Mr Trump’s decisions will be based upon solid science, not politicized science.”[338]

Trump has appointed Myron Ebell, director of the advocacy group the Competitive Enterprise Institute, as head of the future EPA transition team. Ebell has no scientific qualifications, and, along with Trump, is a prominent global warming denier.[342][343]

Foreign policy

Trump has been described as non-interventionalist[344][345] and nationalist.[346] Trump has repeatedly stated that he supports “America First” foreign policy, though he is not linked to the historical isolationist America First Party (1944) or the defunct paleoconservative America First Party (2002).[347] He supports increasing United States military defense spending,[346] but favors decreasing United States spending on NATO and in the Pacific region.[348] He says America should look inward, stop “nation building”, and re-orient its resources toward domestic needs.[345] He questions whether he, as president, would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members,[349] and suggests that he might leave NATO unless changes are made to the alliance.[350] Trump has called for Japan to pay for the costs of American troops stationed there and that it might need to develop nuclear weapons in order to protect itself from North Korea.[320][351]

Donald Trump with former Alaska governor Sarah Palin in January 2016. Palin is standing on the left side of the image, behind a podium with a sign that has the word "TRUMP" in white-on-blue text. Trump is standing on the right side of the image. There are American flags hanging on poles behind them and the outlines of an audience in front of them.

Trump and former governor of Alaska, Sarah Palin, January 2016

In order to confront ISIS, Trump in 2015 called for seizing the oil in ISIS occupied areas, using U.S. air power and ground troops.[352] In 2016, Trump advocated sending 20,000 to 30,000 U.S. troops to the region,[264][353][354] a position he retracted.[355] He has since argued that regional allies of the U.S., such as Saudi Arabia should provide troops in the fight.[356] He also believes that oil fields in ISIS-controlled areas should be bombed.[356] He supports the use of waterboarding, a form of torture, and has said he would “bring back a hell of a lot worse”.[357][358] Trump would as president dismantle the international nuclear agreement with Iran.[359] Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Trump has stated the importance of being a neutral party during potential negotiations, while also having stated that he is “a big fan of Israel.”[360] He supports Israeli settlement construction in the West Bank.[361]

During his 2016 Presidential campaign, Trump repeatedly said that he opposed the Iraq War even before it was launched, although his public position had been unclear at the time.[362][363] In 2002, when asked whether he supported invading Iraq, Trump responded, “Yeah, I guess so” and added “I wish the first time it was done correctly” in reference to the Gulf War of 1990–1991.[362][364] Shortly before the 2003 invasion, he said: “Well, [Bush’s] either got to do something—or not do something, perhaps. […] And perhaps we should be waiting for the United Nations.”[365][366] Trump publicly referred to the war as a “mess” within a week after it began, and by 2004 he said he was opposed to it.[364] Since 2004, he has repeatedly criticized the war, especially during the primary debates with Jeb Bush.[367][368]

Trump has at times during his presidential campaign stated that the Afghanistan War was a mistake, and at other times stated that it was necessary.[369] He supports keeping a limited number of United States troops there.[369] Trump was a strong supporter of the 2011 military intervention in Libya at the time.[370][371] He has since then reversed his position several times, saying finally in June 2016 that he would have supported “surgical” bombing against Gaddafi.[370][371][372]

Trump would consider recognizing Crimea as Russian territory and lifting sanctions on Russia.[373][374] He added that Russia could help the United States in fighting ISIS militants.[375] In the same interview, Trump sarcastically[376] stated that he hoped Russia would unearth Hillary Clinton’s missing emails from her time as Secretary of State.[377]

Immigration

Trump’s immigration policies have been among his most highly discussed policies during the campaign. Some of his proposals have come under scrutiny by several experts on immigration who question the effectiveness and affordability of his plans.[378][379] Trump vows to build a substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants, a wall which Trump promises Mexico will pay for.[380][381] Trump would also create a “deportation force” to deport around 11 million people illegally residing in the U.S., stating “Day 1 of my presidency, [illegal immigrants] are getting out and getting out fast.”[382] Trump opposes birthright citizenship.[383]

In late August 2016, Trump hinted he might soften his position calling for the deportation of all undocumented immigrants.[384][385] On August 31, 2016, he made a visit to Mexico and met with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, saying he wanted to build relations with the country.[386] However, in a major speech later that night, Trump laid out a 10-point plan reaffirming his hardline positions, including building a wall along the Mexican border to be paid for by Mexico, potentially deporting “anyone who has entered the United States illegally”, denying legal status to such people unless they leave the country and apply for re-entry, and creating a deportation task force.[387] He said the focus of the task force would be criminals, those who have overstayed their visas, and other “security threats”.[388]

One of Trump’s most controversial proposals was his original proposal in 2015 for a “total and complete” temporary ban on foreign Muslims entering the United States.[389][390][391] Trump later changed his position in 2016 by stating that the temporary ban would apply only to people originating from countries with a “proven history of terrorism against the United States or its allies”, or countries “compromised by terrorism”.[392][393][394][395][396] Trump characterized this as an expansion, not rollback, of his original proposal.[397]

Fringe theories

According to political writer Steve Benen, unlike past political leaders, Trump has not kept fringe theories and their supporters at arm’s length.[398] Political writer Jack Shafer says that Trump may be a “fairly conventional American populist when it comes to his policy views”, but he has a revolutionary ability to attract free media attention, sometimes by making outrageous comments.[399][400]

For many years, beginning in at least 2011, Trump publicly questioned President Obama’s citizenship status;[401] in 2016, during his presidential campaign, Trump stated that Obama was born in the U.S.[402][403] In the past, he has also alluded to the conspiracy theory that President Obama is secretly a Muslim.[404][405]

Trump has discussed the unfounded notion that vaccine doses cause autism if administered too quickly in succession,[406][407] and the conspiracy theory that former Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia might not have died of natural causes but was murdered.[408] He repeated a National Enquirer allegation that Rafael Cruz, father of Ted Cruz, may have been involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[409]

General election campaign

After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee, Trump’s focus shifted to the general election, urging remaining primary voters to “save [their] vote for the general election.”[441] Trump began targeting Hillary Clinton, who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6, 2016, and continued to campaign across the country. One month before the Republican National Convention, Secret Service agents thwarted an assassination attempt on Trump by a 20-year-old British man illegally residing in the U.S. during one of his rallies in Las Vegas.[442]

Trump standing behind a wooden, inverted-pyramid-shaped lectern with black paneling. He is speaking into a microphone, with an American flag hanging on a pole behind him. He is accepting the Republican nomination at the 2016 Republican National Convention in July 2016.

Trump accepting the Republican nomination at the RNC, July 2016

Clinton had established a significant lead in national polls over Trump throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton’s lead narrowed in national polling averages following the FBI‘s conclusion of its investigation into her ongoing email controversy.[443][444][445] FBI Director James Comeyconcluded Clinton had been “extremely careless” in her handling of classified government material.[446]

On July 15, 2016, Trump announced Indiana Governor Mike Pence as his running mate.[447] Trump and Pence were officially nominated by the Republican Party on July 19, 2016, at the Republican National Convention.[448] The list of convention speakers and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole but the other prior nominees did not attend, though John McCain endorsed Trump prior to the convention.[449][450]

Two days later, Trump officially accepted the nomination in a 76-minute speech inspired by Richard Nixon‘s 1968 acceptance speech.[451] The historically long speech was watched by nearly 35 million people and received mixed reviews, with net negative viewer reactions according to CNN and Gallup polls.[452][453][454]

In late July, Trump came close to Clinton in national polls following a 3 to 4 percentage point convention bounce, in line with the average bounce in conventions since 2004, although it was toward the small side by historical standards.[455] Following Clinton’s 7 percent convention bounce, she extended her lead significantly in national polls at the start of August.[456][457]

Trump has declined to publicly release any of his full tax returns,[458] which led to speculation about whether he was hiding something.[459] Trump said that his tax returns are being audited and his lawyers advise against release.[460][461] High-income individuals are audited more frequently than the average taxpayer, but it is unusual for an individual to be audited for several consecutive years.[461] Trump has told the news media that his tax rate was “none of your business”, but added, “I fight very hard to pay as little tax as possible”.[462][463] Every candidate since Gerald Ford in 1976 released their taxes before the election.[464] Although no law prohibits release of tax returns during an audit, tax attorneys differ about whether such a release is wise legal strategy.[465][466]

Presidential debates

On September 26, 2016, Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton faced off in the first presidential debate at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York. Lester Holt, an anchor with NBC News, was the moderator.[467] This was the most watched presidential debate in United States history.[468] The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri. Much of the narrative of that debate was dominated by a leaked tape of Trump making lewd comments (see below), and counter-accusations by Trump of sexual misconduct by Bill Clinton. Trump had invited four women who had accused Clinton of impropriety to a press conference prior to the debate. The final presidential debate was held at the University of Nevada, Las Vegason October 19. Trump’s refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election drew particular press attention.[469][470]

Sexual misconduct allegations

Two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 recording surfaced, made on a studio bus while preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. On the tape, Trump is heard bragging about forcibly kissing and groping women with the show’s then-cohost Billy Bush.[471][472][473] “I just start kissing them”, he says, “I don’t even wait. And when you’re a star, they let you do it, you can do anything … grab them by the pussy.”[474] He also speaks of his efforts to seduce a married woman, saying he “moved on her very heavily.”[474]

Trump’s language was described by the media as “vulgar”, “sexist”, and descriptive of sexual assault. The incident prompted him to make his first public apology during the campaign,[475][476]and caused outrage across the political spectrum,[477][478] with many Republicans withdrawing their endorsements of his candidacy and some urging him to quit the race.[479] Subsequently, at least 15 women[480] came forward with accusations of sexual misconduct including unwanted kissing and groping, resulting in widespread media coverage.[481][482]

Trump and his campaign have denied all of these accusations.[483][484] He has called them “false smears” and alleged a conspiracy against him.[485]

Victory

On November 8, 2016, Trump won the presidency with 306 electoral votes to 232 received by Clinton. Trump may become the fourth U.S. candidate to win the Electoral College despite receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent.[486][487] He currently trails his opponent by more than two million votes.[488]

Trump’s victory was considered a big political upset, as nearly all national polls at the time showed Hillary Clinton with a modest lead over Trump, and state polls showed her with a modest lead to win the electoral college.[489] The errors in some state polls were later attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton’s support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while underestimating Trump’s support among white working-class voters.[490] Trump’s victory marked the first time that Republicans would control the White House and both chambers of Congresssince the period 2003–2007.[491]

In the early hours of November 9, 2016, Trump received a phone call in which Clinton conceded the presidency to him. Trump then delivered his victory speech before hundreds of supporters in the Hilton Hotel in New York City. The speech was in stark contrast with his previous rhetoric, with Trump promising to heal the division caused by the election, thanking Clinton for her service to the country, and promising to be a president to all Americans.[492][493]

Protests

Trump’s victory sparked protests across the United States. Groups gathered in public to protest some of his policies and inflammatory comments he made during the campaign. They pointed to the fact that Clinton won the popular vote.[494] Trump suggested on Twitter that the protesters were “incited by the media”, but he later stated that he loves their passion for the country.

Presidential transition

President Barack Obama and President-elect Donald Trump meet in the Oval Office, November 10, 2016

On November 10, President-elect Trump had a first meeting with President Obama to discuss plans for a peaceful transition of power. The meeting was notably cordial, with The New York Times stating: “It was an extraordinary show of cordiality and respect between two men who have been political enemies and are stylistic opposites.”[496]

Trump’s transition team was led by Chris Christie until November 11, 2016, when Vice President-elect Mike Pence took over.[497] Since then, Trump has nominated RNC chairman Reince Priebus as White House Chief of Staff,[498][499] businessman and media executive Steve Bannon as Counselor to the President,[500] Senator Jeff Sessions as Attorney General,[501] lieutenant general Michael Flynn as National Security Advisor,[502] education reform activist Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education,[503] and Governor Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United Nations.[504] General James Mattis is considered the leading candidate for Secretary of Defense.[505]

On November 22, Trump outlined his Executive plan for the first 100 days of office.[506][507]

Personal life

Family

Trump has five children by three marriages, and has eight grandchildren.[508][509] His first two marriages ended in divorces that were publicized in the tabloid media.[510]

Family tree showing Donald Trump’s children from his three marriages with Ivana Trump, Marla Maples, and Melania Trump
At a 2016 campaign event, from left: son-in-law Jared, daughter Ivanka, Trump, wife Melania, daughter-in-law Lara, and son Eric

Trump married his first wife, Czech model Ivana Zelníčková, on April 7, 1977, at the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan[511] in a ceremony performed by one of America’s most famous ministers, the Reverend Norman Vincent Peale.[512] They had three children: son Donald Jr. (born December 31, 1977), daughter Ivanka (born October 30, 1981), and son Eric (born January 6, 1984). Donald Jr., Ivanka, and Eric now serve as executive vice presidents of The Trump Organization.[513] Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in 1988.[514]

Trump has been nicknamed “The Donald” since Ivana referred to him as such in a 1989 Spy magazine cover story.[515][516] By early 1990, Trump’s troubled marriage to Ivana and affair with actress Marla Maples had been reported in the tabloid press.[517][518][519] Ivana Trump was granted an uncontested divorce in 1990, on the grounds that Trump’s treatment of her, such as his affair with Maples, had been “cruel and inhuman”.[520][521] In 1992, he successfully sued Ivana for violating a gag clause in their divorce agreement by disclosing facts about him in her book.[522][523][524] In 2015, Ivana said that she and Donald “are the best of friends”.[525]

Donald and Melania Trump standing behind a blond-wood podium with the words "TRUMP", "TEXT 'TRUMP' TO 88022", "MANCHESTER, New Hampshire", and "MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN" printed in white-on-blue text from top to bottom. Donald is to the left, behind the actual podium. Melania is about three feet to his left.

With wife Melania at a 2016 campaign event

Maples gave birth to their daughter Tiffany, named after Tiffany & Company (Trump’s purchase of the air rights above the store in the 1980s allowed him to build Trump Tower on Fifth Avenue), on October 13, 1993.[526] They married two months later on December 20, 1993.[527] The couple formally separated in May 1997,[528] with their divorce finalized in June 1999.[529][530] Tiffany was raised by her mother in Calabasas, California, where she lived until her graduation from Viewpoint School.[531]

In 1998, Trump began a relationship with Slovene model Melania Knauss, who became his third wife.[532][533] They were engaged in April 2004[534] and were married on January 22, 2005, at Bethesda-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church, on the island of Palm Beach, Florida, followed by a reception at Trump’s Mar-a-Lagoestate.[535][536][537] In 2006, Melania became a naturalized United States citizen.[533] On March 20, 2006, she gave birth to their son, whom they named Barron Trump.[538][539] Having heard the language since his birth, Barron is fluent in Slovene.[540] In a February 2009 interview on ABC’s news program Nightline, Trump commented that his love for his business had made it difficult for his first two wives to compete with his affection for work.[541]

Trump’s brother, Fred Jr., predeceased their father Fred. Shortly after the latter died in 1999, the wife of Fred Jr.’s son gave birth to a son with serious medical problems. Trump and his family offered to pay the medical bills through Fred Sr.’s company (Fred Sr. freely provided medical coverage to his family through his company for decades).[542] Fred III then sued the family for allegedly having used “undue influence” on a dementia-stricken Fred Sr. to get Fred III and his sister Mary a reduced share from their grandfather’s will, but Trump attributed the reduced share to his father’s dislike of Fred III’s mother, and Trump stopped the aid for Fred III’s son. The aid was resumed by court order pending outcome of the lawsuit, which was then settled.[543][544]

Religious views

Trump receives blessing from Greek Orthodox priest Emmanuel Lemelson, September 30, 2015

Trump is a Presbyterian.[545] He has said that he began going to church at the First Presbyterian Church in the Jamaica neighborhood in Queens as a child.[546] Trump attended Sunday school and had his confirmation at that church.[546] In an April 2011 interview on The 700 Club, he commented: “I’m a Protestant, I’m a Presbyterian. And you know I’ve had a good relationship with the church over the years. I think religion is a wonderful thing. I think my religion is a wonderful religion.”[547][548] Trump told a 2015 South Carolina campaign audience he attends Marble Collegiate Church, where he married his first wife Ivana in 1977. Marble has said that, though Trump has a longstanding history with the church, he is not an active member of Marble.[546][nb 2] Trump is also loosely affiliated with Lakeside Presbyterian Church in West Palm Beach, Florida, which is nearby his Palm Beach estate.[549] Trump has said that although he participates in Holy Communion, he has not asked God for forgiveness for his sins. He stated, “I think if I do something wrong, I think, I just try and make it right. I don’t bring God into that picture.”[550]

Trump calls his own book The Art of the Deal (1987) “my second favorite book of all time”, and has told campaign audiences: “Do you know what my first is? The Bible! Nothing beats the Bible.”[551][552] Declining to name his favorite Bible verse, Trump said “I don’t like giving that out to people that you hardly know.”[546] However, his religious knowledge was questioned after a speech he gave to Liberty University, in which he referred to Second Corinthians as “Two Corinthians”, eliciting chuckles from some in the audience.[553]

Trump maintains relationships with several prominent national Evangelical Protestant and other Christian leaders, including Tony Perkins and Ralph E. Reed Jr.[554] During his 2016 presidential campaign, he received a blessing from Greek Orthodox priest Emmanuel Lemelson.[555] Trump has ties to the Jewish-American community.[556] At an Algemeiner Journal awards ceremony honoring him with the Algemeiner Liberty Award, he was asked about having Jewish grandchildren. In reference to daughter Ivanka, who converted to Judaism before her marriage to Jared Kushner, Trump said: “Not only do I have Jewish grandchildren, I have a Jewish daughter; and I am very honored by that … it wasn’t in the plan but I am very glad it happened.”[557]

Controversy involving the Pope

In February 2016, while on his way home following a visit to Mexico, Pope Francis said the following when asked about Trump:

A person who thinks only about building walls—wherever they may be—and not building bridges, is not Christian … I’d just say that this man [Trump] is not Christian if he said it this way … We must see if he said things in that way and in this I give the benefit of the doubt.[558]

Trump responded that it was “disgraceful” for the Pope to question his faith, suggesting that the Mexican government was “using the Pope as a pawn” for political purposes, “because they want to continue to rip off the United States.”[559][560] Trump added that “if and when” Islamic State attacks the Vatican, the Pope would have “wished and prayed” Trump were President because under his leadership such an attack would not happen.[560]

The following day, Director of the Holy See Press Office Federico Lombardi insisted that the Pope was not launching an attack on Trump nor trying to sway voters by declaring that someone who advocates building walls is not Christian.[561][562] After the clarification by Lombardi, Trump downplayed his differences with the Pope, saying “I don’t think this is a fight.”[563]

Health

A medical report by his doctor, Harold Borstein M.D., showed that Trump’s blood pressure, liver and thyroid function were in normal range.[564][565] Trump says that he has never smoked cigarettes or marijuana, or consumed other drugs.[566] He does not drink alcohol.[567][568][569]

Appearances in popular culture

Even before Trump’s very highly publicized presidential campaign began in 2015, he had appeared many times in popular culture.

Comics

Since 1986, he has been depicted in the Doonesbury comic strip by Garry Trudeau[570][571] prompting an unfavorable response from Trump.[572]

Films

Trump played himself as the Plaza Hotel owner in a cameo appearance in the movie Home Alone 2: Lost in New York (1992).[573] He also appeared as a guest in many films and series such as: The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, The Job, Suddenly Susan, Sex and the City, The Drew Carey Show, Two Weeks Notice, Spin City, The Nanny, The Associate, The Little Rascals, Zoolander and Eddie.[574]

You’ve Been Trumped (2011), a documentary film by Anthony Baxter, follows Trump’s efforts to develop a Scottish golf resort.[575][576][577] When it was announced that the documentary was to premiere on BBC Two television in the UK, on October 21, 2012,[578] Trump’s lawyers contacted the BBC to demand that the film should not be shown, saying that it was defamatory and misleading. The screening went ahead, with the BBC defending the decision and stating that Trump had refused the opportunity to take part in the film.[579] He appeared with Rudy Giuliani in his documentary Giuliani Time.

Funny or Die released a parody film called Donald Trump’s The Art of the Deal: The Movie (2016).[580]

Literature

Andrew Shaffer‘s satirical book, The Day of the Donald (2016), imagines Trump winning the election and discusses his second year as America’s 45th president.[581]

Music

Main article: Donald Trump in music

Since the 1980s, Donald Trump’s wealth and lifestyle have been a fixture of hip hop lyrics,[582] his name being quoted by more than 50 artists.[583]

In 2011, rapper Mac Miller released his “Donald Trump” song about rising to Trump-level riches, which became a Billboard hit.[582] The billionaire subsequently requested royalties for using his name, starting a feud with Miller.[584]

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