Carbon Water カーボンと農業 懐かしい福岡正信さん 170920

雑多な情報を幾つか 集めてみた。改めて 進化は いつも正解か?という言葉を思い出した。私たちは後退しているのでは ないか?? 除草剤とか農薬は かえって弊害の方が
多くなったのでは?と 思えて仕方ない。その仕事に携わる方々には 申し訳ないが。
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Activated Carbon Filters

Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in manufacturing processes. Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid, prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.

岡正信 2006 自然農法60年の歩み「粘土団子世界の旅」

★福岡さんの考え方に 改めて感動させて頂いた。除草剤 農薬の害に苦しむ世の中。やはり原点に立ち返ろう。★示唆に富むお話。色々気づかせてくれる。

視聴回数 54,509 回  2012/12/11 に公開

★ ★ ★

★少し中身が違うと思うが 私にとっては 進化はいつも正解か? 同じことだ。セガ時代に インドの代理店が 2年やって やめたいと言って来た。当時は 8ビットのメガドライブが主流で 16ビットのセガサターンに時代に入っていた。
インドでは 全く売れなくて 2億円損失を抱えたという。ひょっとして 過去の遺物 8ビットのマスターシステムが あっているのでは? と電話で話したところ 飛んで日本にやってきた。
丁度当方も 在庫の山を抱えていた。倉庫代だけが掛かる負の資産だ。ロイヤルティは すべて切れていた。 確か すぐに3億円ほど買ってくれたのを記憶している。これならインドで爆発的に売れると喜んでくれた。在庫の一掃が出来ただけでなく ロイヤリティが切れているので コストは本当に小さく。お互いに大きな利益を上げたのを覚えている。その国にあったものを 丁度いいタイミングで 丁度いいモノを 提供することが大切なんだと。
当時の中山社長に「俺の発想にはなかった」と珍しく褒めしてくれたのを思い出す。
 https://youtu.be/rj7nrOjhMtk?t=37
Activated Carbon (AC) filtration, as with any water treatment method, is not capable of removing every possible type of contaminant. For example, sodium, microbes, fluoride, and nitrates cannot be removed with AC filtration. Water softening also cannot be achieved with AC filters. In addition, heavy metals, such as lead, can only be removed with a very specific kind of activated carbon water treatment, which is typically used only in residential point-of-use filters.

★この映像を じっくり見ていると なぜケニアが砂漠化するのか?が判る。また女性の役割は 食事の準備をすることで、水や料理の為の薪を集めることだ で 森が無くなり 砂漠化が一気に進む。 まだまだ貧しい国だ。6歳に女の子がなると 食事の準備を開始する。で様々な危険にさらされ 命を失う事たびたびだ。電気の普及率がまだまだで 薪などに頼っている。まだ電気の普及率は 確か 13パーセント。人間として 私たちのやることは まだまだ 沢山ある。

“One Straw Revolution” – Best Documentary , a Must Watch

視聴回数 14,250 回 2017/02/08 に公開 One Straw Revolution – by Masanobu Fukuoka

炭素循環農法とは?(株式会社いかす)

視聴回数 1,689 回  2016/12/01 に公開
炭素循環農法とは、森林や草原の炭素循環システムにならった農法です。炭素資材や緑肥を積極的に活用することにより土壌生態系を構成する微生物・小動物の量を最大限にし、そこから生まれる養分の循環量を最大限にして、農業生産をしていく自然農法です。

______________________________________

2017年06月13日【アウトドア田植え】今年も除草剤を使わない雑草の生えにくい!微生物カーボン農法で田んぼに挑戦! 裸足での手植えで大はしゃぎ! 楽しい一日!

2017/06/12 に公開

HIGH-TECH FILTRATION

There are many types of high-tech activated carbon filters available for industrial filtration systems. Activated carbon can exhibit varying performance characteristics depending upon the strata from which it is derived (e.g., bituminous or anthracite coal, bone char, coconut shell) and the way it is manufactured. The methods used to create the various AC materials are highly proprietary and lead to distinct differences across the range of media available to the industry. WaterProfessionals® can specify high-tech filtration methods for the identified contaminates and the level of purity required. This is why it is critical to match up the correct activated carbon bed with the particular need. This will achieve the most efficient filtering and the longest use interval for the equipment.

炭素循環農法の説明(一般向け(環境編))

視聴回数 23,507 回 2010/11/14 に公開
炭素循環農法で家庭菜園をしています。会社の環境活動としてその理論や実践内容などをパワポにまとめました。折角なのでナレーションを入れて公開してみました。

Coconut shells and coal (anthracite or bituminous) are both organic sources of activated carbon. Carbon forms when an organic source is burned in an environment without oxygen. This process leaves only about 30% of the organic mass intact, driving off heavy organic molecules. Prior to being used for water treatment, the organic mass must then be “activated.” The process of activation opens up the carbon’s massive number of pores and further drives off unwanted molecules. The open pores are what allow the carbon to capture contaminants, known as “adsorption”. The rate of adsorption for a surface area of a just one pound of AC is equal to 60-150 acres!

福岡正信 自然農法家 ★懐かしい福岡さん

視聴回数 158,756 回 2011/06/09 に公開  Masanobu Fukuoka agriculture permacultura
今でも ご本を持っている。 昼寝の時間をつくること。わざわざ 働かなくても良い時間をつくることが 最大の目的だという。本当に考えさせられる。生き方も 姿勢も 教えられる。

There are two main activation methods:

  • Steam Activation – Steam activation is carried out using steam at temperatures of between 800°C and 1000°C. At these temperatures an instant Water-Gas reaction occurs, gasifying the carbonized material. Air is then introduced to burn out the gasses, without burning the carbon. This process produces a graded, screened and de-dusted form of activated carbon. Carbon activated by steam generally has a fine pore structure, ideal for adsorbing both liquid phase and vapor phase compounds.
  • Chemical Activation – With chemical activation the carbon is first filled with a powerful dehydrating agent, typically a paste form of phosphoric acid (P2O5) or zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The paste is heated to temperatures between 500°C and 800°C to activate the carbon. Chemical activation produces activated carbon with a very open pore structure, making it more suitable for adsorbing large molecules.

 

HOW IT WORKS

Activated carbon water treatment is basically used for two water treatment purposes and each work in totally different ways.

1. Chlorine Removal: Activated carbon may be used to remove chlorine with little degradation or damage to the carbon. Dechlorination occurs rapidly and flow rates are typically high. However, this process requires an extensive amount of surface area, and organics in the water will eventually fill up and block the pores of the carbon. Ultimately, the activated carbon filter will need to be replaced as its ability to dechlorinate the water will slowly decline. Spent carbon can be re-activated; however, re-activated filters should only be used in waste-water treatment applications. One advantage to using AC is its low operating cost and virtual “fail safe” operation once installed. One disadvantage is that as the chlorine is removed from the topmost layer of the media, the AC provides a damp environment ideal for the growth and proliferation of bacteria. Bacteria can cause problems in medical applications, or when using carbon as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis.

教えて!宮城さん 2「除草剤を使わなくても、雑草が生えず、生態系が守られ毒のない野菜を食べる事は可能か?」 オキタリュウイチ 2014/01/03 に公開

オキタリュウイチ プロデュース 食の安心を取り戻せ!衝撃コンテンツ「教えて!宮城さん」シリーズ第二弾 ポイント ・宮城さんは、有機をやってると問題になる「硝酸体窒素」に対してどう考えてる? ・
化成肥料や除草剤などを使うようになって、フナ、エビ、カエル、水すまし、ほたる、トンボなどが全滅した…。魚は腹を向けて全部死んだ。全部いなくなった。これは大変な時代になるなと思った。人間に報いが来るな、と。
・しかし、何度訴えても、メーカーは改善しようとしない。生き物が死なない除草剤や肥料などをずっと探していた。 ・
★宮城さんの挑戦と取組み ・滋賀県の人で、除草剤を使わず、微生物と大豆カスを使って特殊な土を作り、それを使って農業をすると(土に微生物がいるのに)雑草が生えない、という方法を編み出した人がいて、今それをやっている。
★そうすると、除草剤も化成肥料も使わずにすんでいる! ・ツバメやバッタ、アイガモ、鳶がその田んぼだけに集まっている!あまりにそこだけにツバメが来すぎてその田んぼの周囲が暗くなった(笑)

2. Removal of Organic Matter: As water passes through an activated carbon filter, organic particles and chemicals are trapped inside through a process known “adsorption”. The adsorption process depends upon 5 key factors: 1) physical properties of the activated carbon (surface area and pore size distribution); 2) the chemical makeup of the carbon source (amount of hydrogen and oxygen); 3) the chemical makeup and concentration of the contaminant; 4) water pH and temperature; and 5) the length of time the water is exposed to the activated carbon filter (called empty bed contact time or EBCT). Additional considerations for organics removal are discussed below:

    1. Physical Properties: Pore size and distribution have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of AC filtration. The best filtration occurs when carbon pores are barely large enough to allow for the adsorption of contaminants (Figure 1). The type of contaminants an AC filter attracts will depend on the pore size of the filter, which varies based on the type of carbon used and the activation method. AC filters tend to work best for removing organic chemicals with larger molecules.

activated carbon water treatmentFigure 1. Molecular screening in the micropores of an activated carbon filter. (after G. L. Culp and R. L. Culp)

  1. Chemical Properties: The surface of an activated carbon filter may also interact chemically with organic molecules. Electrical forces between the AC surface and the chemical nature of some contaminants may result in ion exchange or adsorption. The activation process determines, to a large extent, the chemical properties of the AC filter, making the filter attractive to various contaminants. Different activation processes will yield activated carbon with different chemical properties. For example, AC that has the least amount of oxygen in pore surfaces will absorb chloroform the best.
  2. Contaminant Properties: Activated Carbon is best for use in filtering out large organic molecules. AC and organic molecules are similar materials, which means they will tend to associate with each other. This means organic chemicals will have a stronger tendency to associate with the AC filter rather than remaining dissolved in water. The less soluble organic molecules are, the more likely they are to be adsorbed. Smaller organic molecules fit the smallest pores and are held the tightest.
  3. Concentration: The adsorption process can be affected by the concentration of organic contaminants. For example, with chloroform removal one AC filter may be more effective than another at filtering high concentrations of contaminants, and less effective at filtering low concentration of contaminants. Consult with the manufacturer to determine how an activated carbon filter will perform at different concentration levels for a specific chemical.
  4. Water Temperature and pH: The rate of adsorption will usually be higher at lower temperatures and pH levels. Chemical reactions and chemical forms are closely related to water temperature and pH. In most cases, organic chemicals are more adsorbable as temperatures and pH levels decrease.
  5. Length of Exposure: The length of time in which the contaminant is in contact with the AC filter also influences the adsorption process – the longer the length of contact, the greater the number of contaminants that will be removed. A greater amount of active carbon and a slower flow rate will improve the effectiveness of the filtration process. Bed depth and flow rate are critical design parameters. Carbon filtration is often engineered to provide a specified residence time of water in contact with the carbon bed, referred to as empty bed contact time or EBCT.

FILTRATION EQUIPMENT

Activated carbon filters are similar to those used in multi-media filtration, except without the air scour step in the backwash process. Since certain organics require an extended exposure time to the filter to be removed, higher filter vessel sideshells may be used to provide deeper carbon beds for extended reaction times. Carbon beds should be backwashed to help remove trapped silt, prevent packing and head loss, and to remove carbon fines produced by friction between granules.

As described above, there are a host of variables that must be considered in designing a filtration system and selecting the best carbon for the application.The WaterProfessionals® have years of experience to help in design such systems. Contact us for additional information.

Why WaterProfessionals®?

WaterProfessionals® offers a comprehensive suite of industrial water treatment services and equipment, such as water purification, water filtration, process wastewater treatment, wastewater reclaim/recycle and more, for pharmaceutical, medical, industrial, governmental and commercial businesses.

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